страница1/11
Дата20.01.2019
Размер1.22 Mb.
ТипУчебное пособие

Английского языка


  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11




РЕПКО С.И.

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА

АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Москва - 2017

ББК 46.2.2.1.2 1191

Р 11

Репко С.И. Практический курс перевода английского языка – М.: Академия геополитики, 2017, 192 с.

Р 11

Учебное пособие по практическому курсу перевода английского языка имеет третий уровень сложности и предназначено для студентов старших курсов переводческого факультета, а также для тех, кто интересуется переводом текстов, страноведением и геополитикой современных Соединенных Штатов и Британии. Пособие состоит из 75 текстов широкого спектра направленности, подобранных с учетом того, чтобы их содержание сохраняло актуальность продолжительное время. Структура пособия состоит из текста для перевода, задания для перевода фразеологических единиц, вопросов по содержанию текста, заданий по переводу с русского на английский язык, по выделению главной мысли текста, компрессии информации, написанию аннотации и реферата на английском языке. Основной целью пособия является совершенствование у обучаемых навыков перевода с листа, устного и письменного перевода, аннотирования и реферирования текстов публицистического и научно-популярного жанра, отрывков художественных произведений, документов, законов, юридических и геополитических текстов США и Британии.


ББК 46.2.2.1.2 1191

© Репко С.И.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Предисловие………………………………..……………………….6

Is coffee really good for you? ……………………………………….7

Vitamin B6 and B12 supplements appear to cause cancer.………….9 Top doctors are asking people to drink less……………………11 Lack of sleep is killing us…………………………………………...13

The opioid epidemic, explained…….……………………………....14

Drug abuse in the USA....…………………………………………..16 U.S. fertility rate reaches a record low……... …….……………….18 People in rich countries are dying of loneliness.....……. ………….20 Households have $12.58 trillion of debt……………………………21

External debt and gold reserves….…………………………………22 Make America British again?...…………………………………….25 Ashenden: or, the British agent...…………………………………..27 Churchill annihilated Coventry to protect an even bigger prize..….30 Winston Churchill quotes ………………………………………….32 To codify or not to codify?................................................................34 Modern slavery in the UK………………………………………….36 Human trafficking to UK…. ………………………………………39 U.K. parliament approves unprecedented surveillance powers..…. 42 UK`s new 3 bn aircraft carrier dismissed as «massive distraction» 45 The sixth fattest nation in the world……………………………….47 The immigration problem…………………………..……………...48 Brexit. What are the options?............................................................50

Meet Britain's leading yoga teacher..………………………………55 The Oxfordian theory..……………………………………………..57

Princess Diana. The case for assassination revisited….……………60

Higher education in Britain value compared with America..………………63

KKK not dead……………………………………………………....65

The top 0.01 percent.…………….………………………………....69

Rupert Murdoch.……………..……………………………..……....71

George Soros…………………………………………...……….….74 David Rockefeller…….……………………………………………77 Lunch with the FT: Zbigniew Brzezinski…………………….…….80



Nicky Oppenheimer………………….…………….……………….83

JFK assassination coverup….……………………………….……...85

Maxwell`s secret business………………...………………………..90 The Christmas eve with mogul and muse….………………………93 A list of 24 charities leaving Mar-a-Lago………………………….95

A Grand Strategy…………………………………………….……..98

A strategy of restraint………..………………................................100

Trump`s most controvercial national security aide is out..………..102 President national security adviser H.R. McMaster.....………..…..104 The US military presence abroad….……………………………...106

Russian railway service corps…….…………………….…………107

‘We came, we saw, he died’: NATO intervention in Libya….…...110 President Obama UN speech transcript....………………………...111 Obama's last National Security Strategy..………………………...116 A short and medium-term comprehensive strategy for Ukraine….121

S.94 - Counteracting Russian Hostilities Act of 2017..…..………124 H.R.3364 - Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act…………………………………………………………………127 Russia’s strength annoys US haters…….…………………………129 Global drone war....……………………………………………….131 Weather manipulation and the results……………………………..135 A demographic war………………………………………………..138 School of the Americas.………………………………………..….142

MS-13: Made in, and by, America.………………………………..144 EU has supported ISIS 'from the very beginning'……..………….146 Penalties and liquidated damages…………………………………148

Top numbers that explain politics in 2016…..……………………150 What a Donald Trump presidency might actually look like………155 Celebrities against Donald Trump…..………………………….…157 Congratulations, Trump. Welcome to hell.……………………….159 Why I am not afraid of baby Donald……………………………...162 President Trump addressed congress……………………….….….164 President Trump 2017 U.N. speech……………………..………...166 President Trump speech. October 13, 2017..………………….…167 Trump plan to hire 15,000 border patrol and ICE agents..….….….169 Trump’s misplaced wall………………………………..…………171



Ex-CIA officer in rendition case is released………………………173 Trust me: Eric Prince`s plan is a garbage.....…...…………………175

Financial bubble is increasing…………………………………….178 Ex-Gitmo detainee on torture: «They broke me»…………..…….180

«ATM Modi» squirms in Trump`s Afghan embrace …………….183

The price of true love in the UK………………………………….185 The true cost of love in the UK...…………………………………186 The real cost of true love in the U.S….…………………………...189

Предисловие
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов старших курсов переводческого факультета, владеющих английским языком на уровне Intermediate, а также для тех, кто интересуется переводом текстов, страноведением и геополитикой современных Соединенных Штатов и Британии. Пособие состоит из 75 текстов широкого спектра направленности, подобранных с учетом того, чтобы их содержание сохраняло актуальность продолжительное время. Структура пособия состоит из текста для перевода, задания для перевода фразеологических единиц, вопросов по содержанию текста, заданий по переводу с русского на английский язык, по выделению главной мысли текста, компрессии информации, написанию аннотации и реферата на английском языке. Среди текстов 27 имеют объем примерно тысячу знаков, и освоение каждого из них потребует два академических часа учебного времени на все виды работы. Большие по объему 48 текстов потребуют для освоения 4 часа учебных занятий и время самостоятельной подготовки к занятию. Пособие носит сугубо практический характер и предполагает, что студенты будут одновременно использовать другие учебники и пособия по теории перевода, по грамматике.

Учитывая наличие в Интернете электронных словарей, в учебном пособии больше внимания уделено развитию у будущего переводчика навыка самостоятельного поиска контекстуального значения новых лексических и фразеологических единиц. Целью работы над текстами и заданиями является развитие навыков устного и письменного перевода, поиска контекстуального значения лексических и фразеологических единиц, понимания смысла текста, учета стилистических особенностей авторского текста, адекватной передачи контекстуального значения метафор, идиоматических выражений, игры слов, культурологических особенностей текста; навыка перевода с листа, навыка выбора варианта адекватной передачи стиля автора при письменном переводе; навыка выделения главного в тексте, компрессии информации и составления аннотации. Задания по реферировании развивают навык самостоятельного мышления и создания новой информации.

Is coffee really good for you?

The Telegraph, November 17, 2015


Put the kettle on – a new study from Harvard University has declared that drinking three cups of coffee a day  (even decaf) could help you live longer. It's the latest in a slew of reports about the supposed health benefits of the brew. From type 2 diabetes through to Parkinson’s disease, the headlines would suggest that coffee is a magic elixir for all sorts of ills. But is it? Here, we have scooped up some of the latest coffee research to try to sort the beans from the granules when it comes to health claims. It’s not an easy task. According to Harvard School of Public Health, coffee contains hundreds of different compounds: some are good for human health; others aren’t. This complexity accounts for the fact that scientific opinion about coffee has ‘flip-flopped’ in the past. The good news is that your coffee addiction probably is not bad for you (apart from the impact on your wallet) – but it falls a long way short of being a health drink. Heart disease. A Korean study published in the journal Heart in October 2015 showed that drinking 3 to 5 cups of coffee a day (what they called "moderate consumption") was associated with less calcium build-up in the arteries. But headlines declaring that coffee “prevents heart attacks” were wrong, because the study did not find that coffee drinking confers actual benefits. (The British Heart Foundation also urged caution about interpreting results from a survey carried out in South Korea, where people enjoy a different diet and lifestyle to those in the UK) The new Harvard study suggests moderate coffee consumption reduces the risk of dying prematurely from heart disease. But some other studies actually link coffee to risk factors like raised blood pressure and cholesterol, so more research is needed in this area. Mortality. A Harvard School of Public Health review of coffee research recently found that drinking up to six cups of coffee per day was safe and did not increase the chances of dying from any particular cause, including cancer or heart disease. But closer reading of the study reveals it does not give the green light to rampant coffee consumption. The research involved men and women in their 40s and 50s who were healthy to start with, and was based on standard 240ml cups of coffee containing 100mg of caffeine with a little milk or sugar. Many consumers buy larger cups of coffee containing as much as 330mg of caffeine per serve, which are often loaded with sugary flavorings and/or whipped cream. Type 2 Diabetes. An American Diabetes Association review of coffee research in 2014 found “strong” evidence that drinking 6 cups of coffee per day could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 33 per cent for both men and women, and the new Harvard study backs this up. However, the link is still unclear. Studies show the results are roughly the same for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, suggesting an ingredient other than caffeine is responsible. Some studies also suggest that people who have diabetes and struggle to control their glucose levels might be better opting for decaffeinated coffee. Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Multiple Sclerosis. Various studies have linked higher caffeine intake to a “significantly” reduced risk of developing diseases that involve degeneration of brains cells including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Multiple Sclerosis. But researchers say the findings do not prove that coffee fights these conditions and that other factors might be involved. Again, more research is needed before doctors actually recommend drinking coffee to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. Sleep. It’s not a myth: coffee really does disrupt your sleep. Studies show that to enjoy a peaceful night’s sleep, avoid drinking coffee for at least six hours before going to bed. Other health risks. Experts point out that coffee drinking often goes hand in hand with cigarette smoking, while some studies also show that people who drink lots of coffee tend to exercise less. Pregnant women in particular are advised to restrict their coffee intake to one cup per day. The precise effect is unclear, but studies appear to confirm that caffeine passes through the placenta to be absorbed by the fetus. Types of coffee. While research pointing to the potential health benefits of coffee is growing, it’s worth considering that not all cups of java are the same. According to Harvard School of Public Health, coffee contains cafestol, a “potent” stimulator of cholesterol levels, which is strained out in coffee made using filter papers but present in coffee made other ways, such as in a caffetière or espresso machine. People concerned about their cholesterol should opt for filtered coffee, say the experts.

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to sort the beans from the granules, 2) scientific opinion about coffee has ‘flip-flopped’, 3) coffee addiction, 4) the impact on your wallet, 5) moderate consumption, 5) to fall a long way short of being a health drink, 6) to enjoy a different diet and lifestyle, 7) to give the green light, 7) to go hand in hand, 8) the precise effect is unclear, 9) people should opt for filtered coffee.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What is the scientific opinion about drinking coffee?

2) What is the potential health benefits of drinking coffee?

3) Does drinking coffee reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes for men?

4) What is the effect of drinking coffee on a pregnant woman?

5) Can drinking coffee have negative effect?

6) Does drinking coffee have a link to raising blood pressure?

3. Translate the text in writing beginning with the words «Heart decease» and ending with the words «Mortality», beginning with the words «Other health risks» and ending with the words «Types of coffee».

4. Translate aurally the text beginning with the words «Types of coffee» and ending with the words «say the experts».

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-6 sentences.

6. Translate into English aurally.

1) C 1996 по 1.1.2017 г. число людей в Британии, страдающих ожирением, выросло на 92 процента. 2) Статистика показала, что в 2016 году число взрослых британцев с диагнозом ожирение составило 27 %, тогда как в 1991 году таких было только 14 %. 3) Кроме того, 36 % взрослых британцев страдают избыточным весом. 4) В 2016 году Британия заняла первое место в Европе по проценту людей с ожирением и избыточным весом среди населения, превысив показатели Италии и Швеции в два раза.

7. Find the article`s information with the objective to advertise drinking coffee and filtered coffee.

8. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.

9. Write a paper of 150-170 words on the coffee addiction.
Vitamin B6 and B12 Supplements Appear to Cause Cancer https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2017/08/b12-energy/ 537654/

Around 50 percent of people in the U.S. take some form of “dietary supplement” product, and among the most common are B vitamins. Worse than just a harmless waste of money, this usage could be actively dangerous. In an issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncologypublished in August 2017, researchers reported that taking vitamin B6 and B12 supplements in high doses (like those sold in many stores) appears to triple or almost quadruple some people’s risk of lung cancer. Starting in 1998, researchers assigned 6,837 people with heart disease to take either B vitamins or a placebo. The researchers then watched as people died and contracted diseases in ensuing years—and the vitamin group raised concerns.  In 2009, the researchers reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association that taking high doses of vitamin B12 along with folic acid (technically vitamin B9) was associated with greater risk of cancer and all-cause mortality. Emily White had been overseeing a cohort study that involved 77,000 people across the state of Washington. The cohort was followed for cancers by the National Cancer Registry. Lung-cancer risk among men who took 20 milligrams of B6 daily for years was twice that of men who didn’t. Among people who smoke, the effect appeared to be synergistic, with B6 usage increasing risk threefold. The risk was even worse among smokers taking B12. Using more than 55 micrograms daily appeared to almost quadruple lung-cancer risk. There was no apparent risk among women.


1. Translate the text aurally on the spot.

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) a harmless waste of money, 2) the usage could be actively dangerous, 3) the risk of lung cancer, 4) to take a placebo, 5) to be associated with greater risk of cancer, 6) the effect appeared to be synergistic.

3. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) Is taking B vitamins just a harmless waste of money?

2) How many people in the U.S. take “dietary supplements”?

3) Is there a lung-cancer risk for a man taking B12 daily?

4) What is the effect of taking vitamin B6 and B12 in high doses? 5) When was the report on B vitamins published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology? 

4. Translate the text in writing beginning with the words «Emily White» and ending with the words «risk among women».

5. Translate into English aurally. 1) В той группе, которая принимала вещество бетакаротин, заболеваемость раком лёгких выросла на 18 %, а смертность составила 8 %. 2) Повторные исследования подтвердили одинаковые результаты приема бетакаротина и витамина А. 3) В группе, которая принимала витамин Е, заболеваемость раком простаты выросла на 17 %. 4) Прием витамина С вызывал ожог слизистой оболочки, провоцировал рак ротовой полости, гортани, пищевода.

6. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4 sentences.

Top doctors are asking people to drink less 

http://www.businessinsider.com/alcohol-cancer-risk-studies-doctors-say-drink-less-2017-11

It's not every day that a group of the nation's top cancer doctors asks people to curb their drinking. In a statement released on November 7, 2017 the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) outlined research tying alcohol to two types of cancer and told Americans to drink less. "ASCO believes that a proactive stance by the Society to minimize excessive exposure to alcohol has important implications for cancer prevention," the statement, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, said. This is the first time the organization has taken a stance on alcohol and cancer, but it is not the first time that research has found strong links between the two. In summer 2017, two major research groups found strong evidence that drinking alcohol — as little as a glass of wine or beer a day — increases the risk of developing both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. For that report, scientists from the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund looked at 119 studies from around the globe and incorporated data from roughly 12 million women as well as some 260,000 cases of breast cancer. The US Department of Health and Human Services lists alcohol as a known human carcinogen. Research highlighted by the National Cancer Institute suggests that the more alcohol you drink — particularly the more you drink regularly — the higher your risk of developing cancer. If you want to reduce your cancer risk, drink less. 

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to minimize excessive exposure to alcohol, 2) to take a stance on alcohol and cancer, 3) to find a strong evidence, 4) a known human carcinogen, 5) the more alcohol you drink, the higher your cancer risk.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) Is drinking a glass of beer every day safe for your health?

2) How many cases of breast cancer were studied globally?

3) Is there а cancer risk for a woman drinking a glass of wine daily?

4) What is the effect of regular drinking on the immune system?

5) Is there any difference between the cancer risk for women and for men?

3. Translate the text aurally.

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) С 2012 до 2016 года 5,8% всех смертей от рака в мире были связаны с употреблением алкоголя. .2) Эксперты полагаюли, что люди не ассоциируют алкогольные напитки с заболеанием раком. 3) Специалисты ссылаются на данные опроса о мнении американцев относительно рака, показывающие, что 70 % американцев не воспринимают алкоголь, как провоцирующий фактор рака. 4) Люди явно недооценивают значимость связи между употреблением спиртного и возникновением рака, говорят аналитики.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-5 sentences.

6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.

Lack of sleep is killing us



http://www.independent.co.uk/news/sleep-deprivation-epidemic-health-effects... -a7964156.html
Humans are the only species that deliberately deprive themselves of sleep for no apparent reason. A “catastrophic sleep-loss epidemic” is causing a host of potentially fatal diseases, a leading expert has said. In an interview with the Guardian, Professor Matthew Walker, director of the Centre for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley, said that sleep deprivation affected “every aspect of our biology” and was widespread in modern society. Sleep deprivation is defined as less than seven hours a night.  This has been linked to cancer, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, obesity and poor mental health among other health problems. In short, a lack of sleep is killing us. Professor Walker, who is originally from Liverpool, said: “Sleep loss costs the UK economy over £30bn a year in lost revenue, or 2 per cent of GDP. I could double the NHS budget if only they would institute policies to mandate or powerfully encourage sleep.” “Once you know that after just one night of only four or five hours’ sleep, your natural killer cells – the ones that attack the cancer cells that appear in your body every day – drop by 70 per cent per cent, or that a lack of sleep is linked to cancer of the breast, prostate, how could you do anything else? World Health Organization has classed any form of night-time shift work as a probable carcinogen.” “Alcohol and caffeine are more widely available. All these are the enemies of sleep. Signs of a lack of sleep include needing caffeine to stay awake during the afternoon or wanting to sleep on after the clock alarm goes off.” There is a tendency to boast about needing little sleep to function. Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan were said to survive on a few hours’ sleep a night. Both developed dementia in later life. Regular poor sleep puts a man at risk of serious medical conditions, including obesity, heart disease and diabetes – and it shortens your life expectancy. Electric lights, television, computer and a lot of other aspects of modern life have contributed to sleep deprivation. It’s now clear that a solid night’s sleep is essential for a long and healthy life.

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to deliberately deprive oneself of sleep, 2) a “catastrophic sleep-loss epidemic”, 3) a host of potentially fatal diseases, 4) to be widespread in modern society, 5) to powerfully encourage sleep, 6) needing caffeine to stay awake, 6) to put at risk of serious medical conditions, 7) to shorten the life expectancy.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What are the signs of a lack of sleep?

2) What does sleep loss cost the UK economy?

3) What is the sleep deprivation effect on natural killer cells?

4) What is defined as sleep deprivation?

5) What is sleep deprivation linked to?

6) What species deliberately deprive themselves of sleep for no apparent reason?

7) What is essential for a long and healthy life?

8) Is the lack of sleep linked to breast cancer?

3. Translate the text aurally.

4. Translate the text from English into Russian in writing beginning with the words «World Health Organization» and ending with the words «healthy life».

5. Translate into English aurally. 1) Ученые говорят о связи между нехваткой сна и развитием рака.  2) Сокращение ночного сна ведет к раку толстой кишки из-за нарушения выработки гормона мелатонина. 3) Недавно в журнале опубликовали статью, что мужчины, имеющие проблемы со сном, в 2 раза чаще страдают от рака предстательной железы. 

6. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-5 sentences.

The opioid epidemic, explained https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/8/3/ 16079772/

Heroin use in the US tripled from 2007 to 2014, according to a report from the Drug Enforcement Administration. What is different about the current epidemic is its location in suburban areas and outlying counties rather than the inner cities as was the case in 1970s and 1980s. Also different is the purity and price of heroin. In 1981 the average retail-level purity of heroin was 10 percent, by 1999 the purity had increased to an average of 40 percent. In 1981, the average price per gram was $3,260, and by 1999, the price had decreased to $622. In 2015, more than 52,000 people died of drug overdoses in America — about two-thirds of which were linked to opioids. Over 59,000 to 65,000 likely died from drug overdoses in 2016. President Donald Trump declared the crisis “a national emergency.” If you want to understand how we got here, there’s one simple explanation: It’s much easier in America to get high than it is to get help. If nothing is done, we can expect a lot of people to die: As many as 650,000 people will die over the next 10 years from opioid overdoses — more than the entire city of Baltimore. About 2.6 million people are estimated to have an opioid use disorder in America. Other drugs can also be involved. A 2003 study found roughly half of heroin-related deaths involved alcohol, and the CDC found that 31 percent of prescription painkiller–linked overdose deaths in 2011 were also linked to benzodiazepines, a legal anti-anxiety drug. It’s a full-on addiction epidemic, involving all sorts of legal and illegal drugs.


1. Translate the text aurally on the spot.

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to declare the crisis “a national emergency”, 2) the death is linked to opioids, 3) to get high, 4) to get help, 5) It’s much easier to get high than it is to get help. 6) painkiller–linked overdose deaths, 6) anti-anxiety drug. 7) a full-on addiction epidemic.

3. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What was different about heroin use epidemic in 1970-1980 and in 2007-2014?

2) What was the average retail-level purity of heroin in 1981? 3) How many Americans died of drug overdoses in 2016? 4) What are the US legal drugs?

5) How many Americans are expected to die over the next 10 years from opioid overdoses?

6) What was the population of Baltimore in 2016?

7) What is the meaning of the phrase «It’s much easier in America to get high than it is to get help».

8) How many Americans have an opioid use disorder?

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) Более 80 % героиновых наркоманов начинали с употребления лекарств с опиумом, которые им выписали врачи. 2) Чаще всего героин употребляют американцы в возрасте от 18 до 25 лет, у которых месячный доход составляет менее 1666 долларов. 3)  Средняя цена медицинского препарата с опиумом составляет около 80 долларов за упаковку, а грамм героина стоит на черном рынке 5-10 долларов.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-5 sentences 6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.


Drug Abuse in the USA

https://www.quora.com/Just-how-bad-is-drug-abuse-addiction-in-the-USA

In 2013, 17.3 million Americans (6.6 percent of the population) were dependent on alcohol or had problems related to their alcohol use (abuse). This is a decline from 18.1 million (or 7.7 percent) in 2002. Fewer Americans are smoking. In 2013, an estimated 55.8 million Americans aged 12 or older, or 21.3 percent of the population, were current cigarette smokers. This reflects a continual but slow downward trend from 2002, when the rate was 26 percent. Teen smoking is declining more rapidly. The rate of past-month cigarette use among 12- to 17-year-olds went from 13 percent in 2002 to 5.6 percent in 2013.Illicit drug use in the United States has been increasing. Most people use drugs for the first time when they are teenagers. There were just over 2.8 million new users of illicit drugs in 2013, or about 7,800 new users per day. Over half (54.1 percent) were under 18 years of age. The following are facts and statistics on substance use in the United States in 2013, the most recent year for survey results. Survey respondents report whether they have used specific substances ever in their lives (lifetime), over the past year, and over the past month (also referred to as "current use"). Most analyses focus on past-month use. Approximately 67,800 people responded to the survey in 2013. In 2013, an estimated 24.6 million Americans aged 12 or older—9.4 percent of the population—had used an illicit drug in the past month. This number is up from 8.3 percent in 2002. The increase mostly reflects a recent rise in use of marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug. Marijuana use has increased since 2007. In 2013, there were 19.8 million current users—about 7.5 percent of people aged 12 or older—up from 14.5 million (5.8 percent) in 2007. After alcohol, marijuana has the highest rate of dependence or abuse among all drugs. In 2013, 4.2 million Americans met clinical criteria for dependence or abuse of marijuana in the past year—more than twice the number for dependence/abuse of prescription pain relievers (1.9 million) and nearly five times the number for dependence/abuse of cocaine (855,000).



Cocaine use has gone down in the last few years. In 2013, the number of current users aged 12 or older was 1.5 million. This number is lower than in 2002 to 2007 (ranging from 2.0 million to 2.4 million). There are no hard and fast rules for cocaine prices. As with anything that is bought and sold, these prices can fluctuate and vary depending on various variables such as supply, demand, times, conditions, significant seizures and arrests that disrupt networks, etc. Typically, the price will increase the further it is from the original source. This price increase is largely due to the costs involved in transportation costs. Thus, this is why a kilogram of cocaine in Colombia can be purchased for around $1,800 (the price for kilo of cocaine paste from the cultivation farm is about $900) but in New York City can be purchased for around $30,000, in Las Cruces (New Mexico) $15,500 - $23,000; in San Antonio (Texas) $15,000 - $21,000; in Miami (Florida) $20,000 - $28,500. Prices will typically be cheaper that are near cities that have major distribution network centers (also known as HUBs). Cocaine prices will typically be cheaper in urban areas, more expensive in suburbs and noticeably higher in rural areas. 

Most Americans are upstanding, middle class citizens who won’t touch drugs. The exception to this is marijuana, which is completely socially acceptable among millennials and younger. Serious potheads are frowned upon, but are fairly unusual. People who use harder drugs are usually shunned. Most Americans don’t think drugs are worth the risk. Even pot’s usually set aside by grown-ups, because it’s so difficult to smoke without it showing up on a random drug test. That changes once you get to the lower classes. Once a person has nothing to lose, risk is no deterrent. Drugs are incredibly easy to find in low-income areas, where I was born. It is one of the worst parts of America for this. In the last rust belt home in which I lived, I could have walked across the street to get any drug I wanted. Seeing people make roadside drop-offs was common, a ring of accountants was busted for cocaine use at tax time, and people working low-level jobs showed up to work stoned. Some took breaks to toke on the job. People whose homes are in inner-city slums suffer from a similar sort of cultural isolation. Their poverty tends to require reliance upon public transportation, which in most cities equates to only being able to get out of the house in a meaningful way during daylight hours—i.e., when they’re at work. So, no, most Americans don’t have a drug problem. On the other hand, due to environmental factors, an astounding number of our poor people do. We solve the problem by locking them up.


1. Translate the text aurally on the spot.

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to be dependent on alcohol, 2) to have problems related to alcohol abuse, 3) teen smoking, 4) past-month cigarette use, 5) the rate of use, 6) marijuana use, 7) the highest rate of dependence, 8) no hard and fast rules, 9) to vary depending on various variables, 10) to be completely socially acceptable, 11) to be worth the risk, 12) the rust belt home, 13) to make roadside drop-off, 14) to work a low-level job, 15) to work being stoned.

3. Answer the questions about the text in written form.

1) What is the percentage of current cigarette smokers in the US?

2) Where is the «rust belt» situated?

3) Are drugs incredibly hard to find in low-income areas?

4) How many Americans used an illicit drug in 2013?

5) What was the most commonly used illicit drug in the US in 2013?

6) How many Americans had problems related to their alcohol use?



7) Was the cocaine price the same in urban and rural areas?

8) What was a kilogram of cocaine`s price in Colombia?

9) Why was the cocaine price in New York higher than in Columbia?

10) Was teen smoking increasing rapidly in America?

4. Translate the text from English into Russian in writing beginning with the words «Most Americans» and ending with the words «by locking them up».

5. Translate into English aurally. 1) Курение конопли снижает сопротивляемость к инфекционным заболеваниям. 2) У курильщиков конопли развивается сердечная недостаточность. 3) Исследования показали, что курение конопли приводит к расстройству психики. 6. Write a paper of 130-150 words on the text`s general idea.

U.S. Fertility Rate Reaches a Record Low

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/03/health/united-states-fertility-rate.html

In 2016, the fertility rate in the United States was the lowest it has ever been. The report appears in the journal Human Reproduction. There were 62 births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44, down 1 percent from 2015. There were 3,941,109 babies born in 2016. The present overall fertility rate puts the United States population below replacement level, but that does not mean the population is declining. “Yes, it’s below replacement level, but not dramatically so,” Dr. Brady said. “We have a high level of influx of immigrants that compensates for it.” The birthrate among unmarried women went down, to 42.1 per 1,000 from 51.8 in 2007 and 2008. There were differences by race: 28.4 percent of white babies had unmarried parents, 69.7 percent of black babies and 52.5 percent of Hispanics. New fathers in the United States are getting older. Researchers at Stanford University reviewed data on 168,867,480 live births from 1972 to 2015, making statistical adjustments for missing paternal records. The average age of the father of a newborn in the United States, the investigators found, has risen to 30.9 from 27.4 in 1972. Paternal age increased across the country: the oldest fathers lived in the Northeast, and the youngest in the South. There were average age increases across all educational levels, races and ethnicities. In 2015, fathers with college degrees were 33.3 years old on average, compared with 29.2 for those with only a high school diploma. Asian fathers were the oldest on average by ethnicity. Over the study period, the percentage of fathers older than 40 increased to 8.9 percent from 4.1 percent of all annual births, the percentage over 45 to 2.9 percent from 1.5 percent, and the percentage over 50 to 0.9 percent from 0.5 percent. The trend is not exclusive to the United States. In Germany, for example, fathers over 35 accounted for to 33.1 percent of babies born in 2016 compared with 31.3 in the 1990s. In England, fathers over 35 accounted for 40 percent of all births in 2003, compared with 25 percent in 1993. Older paternal age has been associated with higher rates of miscarriage, birth defects, some cancers, schizophrenia and autism. Some experts have suggested that older sperm is more likely to have mutations.


1. Translate the text aurally on the spot and in writing.

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) the fertility rate, 2) to put the population below replacement level,

3) the population is declining, 4) the unmarried women birthrate, 5) the trend is not exclusive, 6) older paternal age.

3. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What was the average age of the father of a newborn in the US?

2) How many babies were born in the US in 2016?

3) Was autism associated with older paternal age?

4) What was fathers median age trend in the US and Germany?

5) What is the meaning of the words «below replacement level»?

6) Is the number of native Americans increasing each year?

7) What are the reasons of the US fertility rate decrease?

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) Рождаемость в Америке упала до уровня великой депрессии 1929-1933 годов. 2) Снижение уровня рождаемости связано с экономическим кризисом и безработицей. 3) Из-за экономического кризиса большинство женщин не хотели иметь детей. 4) Работающей женщине не хватало денег и времени, чтобы родить и воспитать ребенка.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4 sentences.
People in rich countries are dying of loneliness

https://qz.com/1048847/people-in-rich-countries-are-dying-of-loneliness-an-effect-on-par-with-obesity/


“With an increasing aging population, the effect on public health is only anticipated to increase. Indeed, many nations around the world now suggest we are facing a ‘loneliness epidemic,’” Holt-Lunstad said in a press release. The research is forthcoming in the journal American Psychologist. Studies have found that as many as a third of Americans are lonely, and that 18% of UK adults felt lonely “always” or “often” . The latest research, which collated studies in two meta-analyses, connected the issue of isolation to health and specifically to premature death. Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a professor of psychology at Brigham Young University in Utah, presented the meta studies at a meeting of the American Psychological Association last week. The first, which involved 148 studies representing more than 300,000 participants, found that greater social connection was associated with a 50% reduced risk of dying early. A second meta-analysis took in 70 studies, representing 3.4 million people from the US, Europe, Asia, and Australia. It found that the effect of isolation, loneliness, and living alone had an effect on the risk of dying younger equal to that of obesity. In April 2017, Holt-Lunstad also presented her findings to the US Senate Aging Committee. Such “epidemics,” while not confined to rich countries, are linked to prominent features of affluent culture: decreasing marriage rates, people having fewer children, more people getting divorced, more people living alone and longer life expectancy.
1. Translate the text aurally on the spot.

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to face an epidemic, 2) to feel lonely, 3) social connection, 4) the risk of dying early, 5) the effect of loneliness.

3. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) How many Americans are lonely?

2) Was greater social connection associated with an increased risk of dying early?

3) Was there a link between living alone and a premature death?

4) What is the effect of aging population on the US public health?

5) What was the percentage of UK adults feeling lonely “always”?

6) What is the ‘loneliness epidemic’ in the US?

7) Was the US Senate Aging Committee situated in New York?

8) What was Julianne Holt-Lunstad?



4. Translate into English aurally. 1) Наличие общественных отношений оказывает положительное влияние на здоровье человека. 2) Человек, который окружен множеством других людей, может ощущать себя одиноким. 3) Интернет создал иллюзию, что люди стали больше общаться, стали ближе друг к другу. 4) Опубликованное в 2014 году исследование показало, что одиночество увеличит риск преждевременной смерти пожилого человека на 14%.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4 sentences. 6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.

Households have $12.58 trillion of debt

http://www.businessinsider.com/us-household-debt-credit-ny-fed-q4-2016-2017-2


Americans' debt balances rose "substantially" in the final quarter of 2016, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Household debt totaled $12.58 trillion as of December 31, 2016, according to the New York Fed's latest quarterly report on credit. Total debt increased by $226 billion, in Q4. That lifted household debt just 0.8% below the peak reached in the third quarter of 2008 as the US economy was mired in recession. In 2016, the mortgage debt reached $8.428 trillion. According to the report, Americans borrowed the most money since the recession to pay for new houses or to refinance their mortgages - $617 billion in the fourth quarter. In 2016, we saw a sharp rise in new auto loans, helping carmakers post a record period of sales. In the fourth quarter, auto loan originations — appearances of new auto balances on consumer credit reports — increased by a record $142 billion. A greater share of mortgages and auto loans was granted to higher-quality borrowers. About 58% of all new mortgages in 2016 were approved for people with credit scores above 760. That was up from an average of 54% in 2015. "The question from a macro perspective then becomes if the low-quality borrowers as a group are big enough to slow down the overall economic expansion," said Torsten Slok, Deutsche Bank's chief international economist, in a note on Friday. "So far banks have responded with a tightening in lending standards." Outstanding student loans — the largest source of debt besides mortgages — increased by $31 billion to $1.31 trillion. Delinquency rates were "roughly stable" in Q4, the New York Fed said, although late payments on car loans rose to a post-recession high. 
1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) household debt, 2) to refinance the mortgages, 3) a record period of sales, 4) the higher-quality borrowers, 5) the low-quality borrowers.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What is the difference between corporate and household debt?

2) What was the US household debt on August 31, 2008 before the financial crisis?

3) What is the meaning of the words «higher-quality borrower»?

4) What was the effect of $12.58 trillion household debt on the US economy?

5) What was the second largest source of debt besides mortgages?

6) Why did low-quality borrowers slow down the US overall economic expansion? 7) How much money did Americans borrow to buy cars in 2016? 3. Translate the text in writing.

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) По состоянию на 1.7.2017 г. внутренний долг США составил 14, 365 трлн. долларов и за полгода увеличился на 1,785 трлн. долларов. 2) Эксперты прогнозировали, что на 1.1.2019 г. долг США должен был превысить 25 триллионов. долларов. 3) По состоянию на 13.7.2017 г. крупнейшим держателем американского долга на 2,465 трлн. долларов была ФРС США. 4) Кроме того, ФРС купила государственных ипотечных ценных бумаг у банкротов на 1,77 трлн. долларов.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-5 sentences.

External debt and gold reserves

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_external_debt



In 2016, the total debt of all countries was $227 trillion. External debt is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt - the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

30/6/2017

External debt ($trln)

Per capita debt ($)

India

0.471

340

China

1.562

1,100

Russia

0.532

3,700

Turkey

0.432

5,300

Japan

3.516

27,600

Greece

0.471

42,300

US

18.624

57,300

Germany

5.141

62,600

France

5,369

82,600

UK

7.852

119,000

Netherlands

4.306

234,000

Ireland

2.236

471,000

Note that while a country may have a relatively large external debt (either in absolute or per capita terms) it could actually be a "net international creditor" if its external debt is less than the total of the external debt of other countries held by it. The World Gold Council estimates that all the gold ever mined totaled 187,200 tonnes in 2017. At a price of US$1,250 per troy ounce, reached on 16 August 2017, one tonne of gold has a value of approximately US$40.2 million. The total value of all gold ever mined would exceed US$7.5 trillion at that valuation and using WGC 2017 estimates. The IMF maintains statistics of national gold assets as reported on September 1, 2017.

Country

Gold (in tonnes)

US + IMF

8,133.5 + 2,814.0

Germany

3,374.1

Italy

2,451.8

France

2,435.9

China

1,842.6

Russia

1,729.4

Switzerland

1,040.0

 Japan

765.2

Netherlands

612.5

Central banks generally have not allowed independent audits of their reserves. The gold listed for each of the countries in the table usually is not physically stored in the country, because Washington asked 60 countries to lease their gold reserves to the USA. Gold leasing by central banks could place into doubt the reported gold holdings in the above table.
1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) the internationally accepted currency, 2) a "net international creditor", 3) the gold is not physically stored in the country 4) to lease the gold reserves.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What is the meaning of «leasing gold reserves to the US»?

2) Were International Monetary Fund gold reserves independent?

3) What countries leased their gold reserves to the US?

4) What country was a "net international creditor" in 2017?

5) Why did a relatively small per capita debt of Greece have detrimental effect on its economy in 2013?

6) What was Greece`s external debt in 2017?

3. Translate the text in writing.

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) В 2016 г. в мире было продано 24338 т. золота. 2) В 2007-2016 г. Центральный банк России купил 1250 т. золота, в том числе в 2016 году - 201 тонну. 3) В 2016 г. банк Китая купил 80 т. золота, а граждане Китая купили 285 т. золота. 4) В 2016 г. граждане Германии купили 105 т. золота, а российские граждане – только 4 т. золота. 5) Скупка золота банками и частными инвесторами показывала, что они боялись краха доллара - основы мировой финансовой системы.

Make America British again?

RT, February 24, 2017

The modern Commonwealth dates back to 1949 and is made up of 53 countries, 17 of which have Her Majesty the Queen as head of state. As a former British colony, the US could be the next “associate member” of the Commonwealth – thanks to President Donald Trump’s reported love of the UK and Queen Elizabeth II. The plan, which is reportedly being backed by the Queen, is for the Commonwealth Society to open a branch in the US, according to The Telegraph. "The UK rather left this treasure in the attic, and forgot about it because people were so glued to Brussels," said Michael Lake, the director of the Royal Commonwealth Society. The move comes amid efforts to use the Commonwealth as a platform to develop international relations in a number of areas, such as foreign policy and trade. Lake said that the move had been encouraged by Trump and the ‘Bad Boys of Brexit’ – a title given to former UKIP leader Nigel Farage and his followers by UKIP donor Arron Banks. Back in December 2016, Lake said in a letter to Trump that the move would allow the UK and US to “find imaginative ways” to collaborate. The letter was delivered to Trump by Farage, who has reportedly encouraged the move in talks with senior aides and the President’s chief strategist Steve Bannon, as he believes the Commonwealth’s principles would suit Trump’s foreign policy outlook. Trump, whose mother is from Scotland and a devotee of the royals, has already expressed his willingness to build relations with the royal family. He recently asked to play golf with the Queen at her residence in Balmoral during his planned official state visit to the UK in June 2017. A source told the Express newspaper that the President did not want todo what Obama did during his state visit to the UK," adding that "he wants to go one better”, and have the “full Monty”. The plan comes after a branch of the Commonwealth opened in Dublin last year as part of an effort to draw the Republic of Ireland into the alliance too. Lake said it is “no secret” that the branch opened after the Queen went there last year to visit. "The Queen is our patron and I see her from time to time, and she makes it clear to me that the Commonwealth is a priority to her," Lake said.


1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to leave the treasure in the attic, 2) to develop international relations, 3) a devotee of the royals, 4) to build relations with.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) When was the modern Commonwealth organized?

2) How many countries were the members of Commonwealth?

3) Did the US have a plan to become a member of Commonwealth?

4) Who is the head of the modern Commonwealth?

5) Was there a Royal Commonwealth Society in the US?

6) Where was President Trump`s mother born?

7) Is the Queen`s residence Balmoral situated in Scotland?

8) Is it possible for the US President to play golf with the Queen?

9) What did President Obama do during his state visit to the UK?



10) Who were the ‘Bad Boys of Brexit’?

3. Translate the text aurally. 4. Translate into English aurally. 1) Юридически главой 17 стран Содружества является британский монарх. 2) Элита Британии управляет политикой стран Содружества во время ежегодных конференций премьер-министров стран Содружества. 3) Премьер-министры Содружества на конференции вырабатывают общую политику по вопросам международной, экономической и социальной политики Содружества. 4) Британия скрыто управляла странами Содружества при помощи местных олигархов - агентов британского влияния, которые получили от королевы статус рыцарей.


William Somerset Maugham «Ashenden: or, The British Agent». – London: 1929, Chapter XIY, Chapter XI.
/August 1917/ «Vladivostok. It really gave one the sensation of being at the end of the world. It was a long journey that Ashenden had made from New York to San Francisco, across the Pacific in a Japanese boat to Yokohama, then from Tsuruki in a Russian boat, he the only Englishman on board, up the Sea of Japan. From Vladivostok he was to take the Trans-Siberian to Petrograd. It was the most important mission that he had ever had and he was pleased with the sense of responsibility that it gave him. He had no one to give him orders, unlimited funds (he carried in a belt next to his skin bills of exchange for a sum so enormous that he was staggered when he thought of them), and though he had been set to do something that was beyond human possibility he did not know this and was prepared to set about his task with confidence. He believed in his own astuteness. Though he had both esteem and admiration for the sensibility of the human race, he had little respect for their intelligence: man has always found it easier to sacrifice his life than to learn the multiplication table. Ashenden did not much look forward to ten days on a Russian train… He had protested when he was chosen for this mission, it looked too large an order, but his protests were ignored. He was chosen not because those in authority thought him particularly suited for the job, but because there was no one to be found who was more suited. There was a knock at the door /of the hotel in Petrograd/… Three men entered. He knew them by sight, since they had travelled on the same boat with him from San Francisco to Yokohama, but following their instructions no communications had passed between them and Ashenden. They were Czechs, exiled from their country for their revolutionary activity and long settled in America, who had been sent over to Russia to help Ashenden in his mission and put him in touch with Professor Z./Masarik/ whose authority over the Czechs /in the US and prisoners of war/ in Russia was absolute…. Dr. Orth had arrived in Petrograd a week before Ashenden and now put before him what he had learned of the situation. It seemed to Ashenden that it was critical and if anything was to be done it must be done quickly… He had at length devised a plan of campaign. It took him twenty-four hours' hard work to code a telegram in which he put his scheme before the persons who had sent him to Petrograd. It was accepted and he was promised all the money he needed…

/In August 1917/ When Ashenden was sent to X /Petrograd/ and looked about him he could not but see that his situation was equivocal. X/Petrograd/ was the capital of an important belligerent state; but a state divided against itself; there was a large party antagonistic to the war and revolution was possible if not imminent. Ashenden was instructed to see what under the circumstances could best be done; he was to suggest a policy and, if it was approved by the exalted personages who had sent him, to carry it out. A vast amount of money was put at his disposal. The ambassadors of Great Britain and the United States had been directed to afford him such facilities as were at their command, but Ashenden had been told privately to keep himself to himself; he was not to make difficulties for the official representatives of the two powers by divulging to them facts that it might be inconvenient for them to know; and since it might be necessary for him to give support under cover to a party that was at daggers drawn with that in office and with which the relations of the United States and Great Britain were extremely cordial it was just as well that Ashenden should keep his own counsel. The exalted personages did not wish the ambassadors to suffer the affront of discovering that an obscure agent had been sent to work at cross-purposes with them. On the other hand, it was thought just as well to have a representative in the opposite camp, who in the event of a sudden upheaval would be at hand with adequate funds and in the confidence of the new leaders of the country. But ambassadors are sticklers for their dignity and they have a keen nose to scent any encroachment on their authority. When Ashenden on his arrival at X /Petrograd/ paid an official call on Sir Herbert Witherspoon, the British ambassador, he was received with a politeness to which no exception could be taken, but with a frigidity that would have sent a little shiver down the spine of a polar bear. Sir Herbert was a diplomat de carrière and he cultivated the manner of his profession to a degree that filled the observer with admiration. He did not ask Ashenden anything about his mission because he knew that Ashenden would reply evasively, but he allowed him to see that it was a perfectly foolish one. He talked with acidulous tolerance of the exalted personages who had sent Ashenden to X /Petrograd/. He told Ashenden that he had instructions to meet any demands for help that he made and stated that if Ashenden at any time desired to see him he had only to say so…

Ashenden had the impression that the ambassador enjoyed in his well-bred way the sensation of ignoring the pomp in which he lived. They might have been dining in one of the great country houses of England; it was a ceremony they performed, sumptuous without ostentation, and it was saved from a trifling absurdity only because it was in a tradition; but the experience gained for Ashenden a kind of savor from the thought that dwelt with him that on the other side of the wall was a restless, turbulent population that might at any moment break into bloody revolution, while not two hundred miles away men in the trenches were sheltering in their dug-outs from the bitter cold and the pitiless bombardment».
1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to be at the end of the world, 2) to be pleased with the sense of responsibility, 3) to do something beyond human possibility, 4) a man has always found it easier to sacrifice his life than to learn the multiplication table, 5) to know somebody by sight, 6) to keep himself to himself, 7) to give support under cover to an opposition party, 8) to keep one`s own counsel, 9) sent a shiver down the spine.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) How many American agents travelled on a same ship and on a same train with the British agent from San Francisco to Vladivostok?

2) Why were the American and the British agents forbidden to communicate on board a ship and on a train?

3) Why did Ashenden secretly bring an enormous sum of money to Petrograd in August 1917?

4) What were the US and the UK ambassadors to Russia directed to afford Ashenden?

5) Why did Ashenden meet with professor Masarik in Petrograd?

6) What was the mission of professor Masarik in Russia?

7) Whom did Ashenden give money to make a revolution?

8) What was the secret mission of the Czechoslovak Legion in Russia?

3. Translate the text aurally.

4. Translate the text in writing beginning with the words «/August 1917/ Vladivostok» and ending with the words « of the situation»; beginning with the words «/In August 1917/ When Ashenden was sent to X /Petrograd/» and ending with the words «the new leaders of the country».

5. Translate into English aurally. 1) Секретная градстратегия Британской империи 1857 года на сто лет имела план разрушить Россию и захватить Сибирь. 2) Американский банкир Э.М. Хауз (Edvard M. House) 14.1.1916 г. сделал в дневнике запись о встрече с королем Британии и о секретном обсуждении с британским премьером Ллойд Джорджем вопроса о расчленении России. 3) Банкир Э. Хауз 28.4.1917 г. в Нью-Йорке обсудил с министром иностранных дел Британии А. Бальфуром секретную карту с планом послевоенного устройства мира. 4) На карте будущей России, которую представители элиты США и Британии обсудили 28.4.1917 года, Сибирь обозначили зоной постоянной оккупации США.



6. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-6 sentences. 7. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Коьрта
Контакты

    Главная страница


Английского языка