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Churchill annihilated Coventry to protect an even bigger prize


On the night of a full moon, Sergeant Werner Handorf, a 24-year-old pilot from Berlin, eased his fully-laden Junkers Ju-88 bomber off the runway and up into the sky. He had 1,000lb of high explosives in the hold and twice as much in racks along the wings. Around him, hundreds of other German planes were heading from bases in captured France towards the coast of England. London was the obvious destination, as it had been for weeks as the Luftwaffe blitzed the enemy`s capital city. But not this time. Handorf turned and caught sight of his navigator poring over a street map of Coventry. This time their aiming point was to be the Midlands, more particularly, the city in Britain's industrial heartland that may well have cost Germany victory in the Battle of Britain. It was in Coventry, with its plethora of vital aircraft factories, that Rolls-Royce engines had been stripped and re-conditioned to give the Spitfires and Hurricanes their vital edge in the decisive dogfights that summer. Now Coventry was in for a pasting like never before. Hitler had personally ordered it. This "Moonlight Sonata", as the German operation was codenamed, was to be a requiem for Luftwaffe dead. And so, on that night of November 14, 1940, began an air raid whose ferocity became a byword for devastation. Five hundred tons of explosives, 33,000 incendiary bombs and dozens of parachute mines were dropped onto the compact city center with its half-timbered houses and winding lanes and the surrounding factories and houses. In less than a fifth of a square mile, 60,000 buildings were destroyed or damaged. The 600-year-old cathedral went up in flames. Thereafter, "Koventriert" was the word the Germans used for annihilating a city with sheer firepower. But could it have been prevented? Or, at the very least, could its population of up to 300,000 have been warned that their homes and their lives were in danger and allowed to evacuate to safety? A new play, which premiered at the Belgrade Theatre in Coventry, says so. The play «One Night in November» claims that the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, knew several days in advance that the Germans would attack Coventry. But he deliberately held back the information. His intelligence came from the scientists at Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire, who, in utmost secrecy, had cracked the Enigma code the Germans used for their military communications. From an intercepted message, they had discovered that the city was a target. But warning the city of Coventry and its residents of the imminent threat would have alerted the Germans to the fact that their codes had been cracked and their security breached. Churchill considered it worth the sacrifice of a whole city and its people to protect his back-door route into Berlin`s secrets. Of the 449 German bombers that descended on Coventry, every one returned to base safely. Norman Longmate, the most knowledgeable expert about the Coventry blitz, comprehensively exonerates Churchill. "No citizen was left to die, no humble home left to burn for reasons of high strategy," he concluded in his book Air Raid. 

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to ease the plane up into the sky, 2) the Battle of Britain, 3) Coventry became a byword for devastation, 4) to hold back the information, 5) back-door route.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) When did British scientists crack the German military communication coder?

2) Did Churchill know in advance the date of the planned air raid on Coventry?

3) Why did Churchill let the Germans bomb Coventry?

4) How many tons of explosives were dropped onto the compact city center?

5) How many buildings were destroyed or damaged in Coventry?

6) How many British citizens did Churchill sacrifice on November 14, 1940.

3. Translate the text aurally.

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) В 80 км от Лондона в замке Блетчли-парк более 12 тысяч сотрудников расшифровывали немецкие телеграммы. 2) Согласно приказу У. Черчиля, расшифрованные немецкие телеграммы давали только главе внешней разведки МИ-6, начальникам британских разведок Сухопутных войск, ВМС и ВВС. 3) В 1939 году в Москве знали о работе в Британии по дешифровке кодов немецкой шифровальной машинки Энигма. 4) В 1942 году агент разведки СССР Джон Кэрнкросс поступил на службу в британскую Государственную службу кодов и шифров с заданием посылать в Москву информацию о дешифровке немецких кодов.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4 sentences.
6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.
Winston Churchill Quotes


1) I only believe in statistics that I doctored myself. 2) You can always count on Americans to do the right thing—after they’ve tried everything else. 3) The government had to choose between war and shame. They chose shame. They will get war too. 4) If you’re not a liberal when you’re 25, you have no heart. If you’re not a conservative by the time you’re 35, you have no brain. 5) History will be kind to me for I intend to write it. 6) I’m just preparing my impromptu remarks. 7) I remember when I was a child, being taken to the celebrated Barnum’s Circus, which contained an exhibition of freaks and monstrosities, but the exhibit on the program which I most desired to see was the one described as ‘The Boneless Wonder’. My parents judged that the spectacle would be too demoralizing and revolting for my youthful eye and I have waited fifty years, to see The Boneless Wonder sitting on the Treasury Bench. 8) We contend that for a nation to tax itself into prosperity is like a man standing in a bucket and trying to lift himself up by the handle. 9) An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last. 10) Lady Nancy Astor: “Winston, if you were my husband, I’d poison your tea.” Churchill: “Nancy, if I were your husband, I’d drink it.” 11) Bessie Braddock: “Sir, you are drunk.” Churchill: “Madam, you are ugly. In the morning, I shall be sober.” 12) There are a terrible lot of lies going about the world, and the worst of it is that half of them are true. 13) To build may have to be the slow and laborious task of years. To destroy can be the thoughtless act of a single day. 14) Although always prepared for martyrdom, I preferred that it should be postponed. 15) Some see private enterprise as a predatory target to be shot, others as a cow to be milked, but few are those who see it as a sturdy horse pulling the wagon. 16) Don’t talk to me about naval tradition. It’s nothing but rum, sodomy, and the lash. 17) Courage is going from failure to failure without losing enthusiasm. 18) All this contains much that is obviously true, and much that is relevant; unfortunately, what is obviously true is not relevant, and what is relevant is not obviously true. 19) Nothing in life is so exhilarating as to be shot at without result. 20) Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never – in nothing, great or small, large or petty – never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense. 21) Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen. 22) A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject.23) It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried. 24) You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life.

1. Translate the phrases aurally on the spot.

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to doctor statistics, 2) to count on Americans, 3) to do the right thing, 4) to choose between war and shame, 5) too demoralizing spectacle for youthful eyes, 6) a predatory target to be shot, 7) a cow to be milked, 8) democracy is the worst form of government, 9) to stand up for something.

3. Answer the questions about the Churchill`s quotes in writing.

1) Did Churchill view Americans as older brothers?

2) Why did Churchill use words «The Boneless Wonder» to name a man on a Treasure Bench?

3) Was Churchill fond of drinking strong alcohol beverages?

4) Did Churchill have an adoration for statistics?

5) Was it polite to say in public that Bessy Braddock was ugly?

3. Translate into English aurally. 1) В 1919 году В.И. Ленин назвал У. Черчиля главным врагом советской власти, потому что он занимал пост военного министра Британии, войска которой оккупировали Россию. 2) По Красной площади во время демонстрации в Москве несли чучело Черчиля, по которому били молотом. 3) Жизнь Черчиля – это редкий пример того, как алкоголик смог дожить до 90 лет. 4) Би-Би-Си накануне 80-летия У. Черчиля создала группу для съемок его похорон, но он пережил трех руководителей этой группы.
To codify or not to codify?

- London: University College, 2015, pp. 28-29.

Due to its very nature, the UK’s constitutional text does not have a preamble, and it nowhere outlines the general aims and principles of the nation. The Bill of Rights (1689) and Act of Settlement (1701) limit the power of the monarch in favor of parliament, so one might argue that they implicitly define the UK government as a ‘constitutional monarchy’. However, the UK constitution does not do so in explicit terms. In addition to the large omissions relating to the executive and legislative branches of government, a number of other features of the UK’s constitution are conspicuously absent as well. Constitutions often contain provisions of a more general and less substantive nature. For instance, 91% of in force constitutions state the type of government envisioned, usually in the preamble or first article. For example, Article 5 of the Irish constitution states that “Ireland is a sovereign, independent, democratic state “. The preamble of the Indian constitution states that India is a “sovereign socialist secular democratic republic.” There are some symbolic features missing from the UK’s constitution. For instance, 76% of constitutions provide for an official language. English is the de facto official language of the UK, but this is not specified by statute. The only references to language in the UK constitution are in the devolution Acts. The Government of Wales Act (2006) seeks to put Welsh on the same terms as English in the principality. The Northern Ireland Act (1998) briefly mentions the need for a policy on Irish and Ulster Scots, but it does not make either an official language. The Scotland Act (1998) does not mention Scots or Scottish Gaelic at all. Another omission is the constitution’s failure to mention either the UK’s national anthem or capital, both of which are stated in 29 (59%) of constitutions. Another symbolic feature of countries is their flag. 68% of constitutions describe the nation’s flag. While the Union with Scotland Act (Article 1) describes the flag of Great Britain as a conjoining of the crosses of Saint George and Saint Andrew, nowhere does the UK constitutional text describe the current flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which also conjoins the cross of Saint Patrick. The volume of rights is simply the number of de jure rights which are protected in a constitution, out of a possible 116 distinct rights which the CCP have identified as characteristically constitutional. In 1789, there were 10 rights and in 2014 - 50 distinct rights in the UK constitution. Of the rights, which are not found in the UK’s written constitution, two are particularly noticeable in their absence due to their common presence in constitutions across the world. These are freedom of movement and freedom of the press. Freedom of movement is markedly absent from the Human Rights Act (1998). Its omission is striking because it is found in 83% of in force constitutions and was incorporated into the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) by Protocol No. 4. This Protocol was never ratified by the UK and, as a result, freedom of movement was omitted from the Human Rights Act. Freedom of the press is another fundamental right which is not guaranteed by the UK’s constitution, despite being found in 76% of constitutions across the world. From Princess Diana assassination to the phone hacking scandal, the tension between freedom of the press and the right to privacy has been a controversial and politically charged issue.

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) to outlines the general aims of the nation, 2) de facto official language, 3) the cross of Saint George, 4) the cross of Saint Patrick, 5) de jure rights, 6) the freedom of the press, 7) the freedom of movement, 8) the fundamental right, 9) politically charged issue.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) Does the UK constitution limit the power of the monarch in favor of parliament?

2) Does the UK constitution name English the official language?

3) Does the UK constitutional text describe the current flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

4) Why is freedom of the press fundamental right not mentioned in the UK constitution?

5) Why did the Scotland Act (1998) not mention Scots at all?

6) What was the essence of media mogul Murdoch`s phone hacking scandal?

3. Translate the text from English into Russian in writing beginning with the words «Of the rights» and ending with the words «politically charged issue».

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) По состоянию на 2017 г. в Соединённом Королевстве не было текста Конституции. 2) Не существовало точного перечня законов, которые относили к конституции Британии. 3) В начале января 2017 г. в Соединенном Королевстве «конституцией» называли три типа права: статутное право (statute law), общее право (common law) и конституционные конвенции (constitutional conventions). 4) Верховный суд Британии 24.1.2017 г. указал, что «конвенции/ конституционные обычаи такого рода» (например, «конвенция лорда Сьюэла») не являются правом, а это - лишь политический обычай.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-6 sentences. 6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.
Modern slavery in the UK 


In August 2017, detectives said modern slavery in the UK was far more prevalent than previously thought, with the number of victims estimated to be in the tens of thousands. There are 41,500 Russian born residents in the UK and 420,000 of Eastern Slavic descent (Ukrainian and Belorussian included here). Thousands of Russian and Eastern Slavic girls are the victims of human trafficking. There are more than 300 live policing operations in the UK targeting modern slavery, according to the National Crime Agency (NCA), which said there were 111 arrests in May and June 2017, related to 130 potential victims. In January 2017, according to local authority-collected government data, there were, 12,276 caravans of privately owned Traveller and Gypsy sites, and the vast majority of these are occupied by families who are just as outraged by modern-day slavery as the vast majority of the non-Traveller communities. The Traveller Movement group (The Friends, Families and Travellers) estimates that there are more than 300,000 Travellers in Britain, although the true figure is thought to be higher because many do not take part in the official census. There is widespread awareness that modern slavery can be an issue, and many staff have been trained to identify and deal with it. Victims are predominantly from eastern Europe, Vietnam and Nigeria, with a roughly equal number of men and women, according to the NCA. Some have been found working at car washes and in construction, agriculture and food processing. The investigation into the Rooney family by Lincolnshire police was one the biggest operations of its kind. Eleven people were jailed September 12, 2017, for up to 15 years for exploiting at least 18 victims of modern slavery, including one for 26 years. Rooney family made more than £1.5m from the slave exploitation in Lincolnshire. The homeless victims were taken from the streets to work for Rooney family’s tarmacking business. Their vulnerable victims were too afraid to speak out. One, whose ordeal lasted more than 25 years, was made to dig his own grave. He spent 26 years in service and lived in a room 'soaked with urine and feces'. Rooneys targeted men who were homeless, often finding them outside hostels or night shelters. Their victims, aged between 18 and 63, were lured with promises of work, money, shelter, food and free accommodation but worked as slaves. Once taken to Drinsey Nook, they were put up in broken-down, ill-equipped and dirty caravans without heating. They were then put to work laying tarmacked drives, dawn to dusk, seven days a week in all weather and usually without a break, and only rarely were they given food or drink. Some slaves were reduced to stealing in order to feed themselves.
Victims were forced into grueling 12-hour days tarmacking and paving driveways for the gang. The family would beat their victims and make them fear for their lives while treating them 'worse than dogs'. The slaves were forced to live in horrendous conditions in stinking, filthy caravans without running water or toilet facilities and kept under 'total control' through threats of violence, along with drugs and alcohol. Mobile phones were taken off them so they could not call the police or members of their family. One victim was left a 'devastated, shattered and broken man' while others said they lived a 'dog's life' and were forced to 'clear up the blood' from their beatings. One man, who lived on the site for 15 years, told how he would receive a 'slap' if he disobeyed Martin Rooney Sr. He was often left with a bleeding mouth and bruising to his face after being subjected to beatings at the hands of the gypsy thug. Commenting on the difference between the Traveller family's lives and the condition of the slaves, Judge Timothy Spencer said: 'It was like the gulf between medieval royalty and peasantry'. Their captors wore Rolex watches, drove expensive cars and lived in homes that were “palatial in comparison” with their workers’ conditions. Captors spent the cash they made on luxuries, sports BMW cars, cosmetic surgery and even a place on a Manchester United soccer school course. They splashed out on holidays in Barbados, Australia, Egypt and Mexico. The Rooney family also splashed cash on other lavish items - including gym memberships, boob jobs. Martin Rooney Senior, 57, and Bridget Rooney, 55, were described as the 'patriarch and the matriarch' of the enterprise. Family head Martin Rooney got 10 years, while matriarch Bridget Rooney got seven years. In total, the family got 79 years in jail. Sentencing 11 members of the Rooney family at Nottingham crown court the judge said: “You claimed that what went on at Drinsey Nook, near Lincoln, was no different from what was going on at any Travellers’ camp around this country, that all Travellers had workers operating under similar conditions. Sadly, I very much fear that you may be correct about that. But that does not make any of it right.”

1. Translate the text from English into Russian aurally on the spot beginning with the words «Eleven people» and ending with the words «members of their family».

2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) promises of work, money, shelter and food, 2) modern-day slavery, 3) to dig his own grave, 4) to work dawn to dusk, 5) to treat 'worse than dogs', 6) to keep under 'total control', 7) to live a 'dog's life', 8) the gypsy thug, 9) to splash cash on holidays in Barbados, 10) boob job, 11) the 'matriarch' of the enterprise, 12) that does not make any of it right.

3. Answer the questions about the text in written form.

1) How many Travellers sites were in Britain in 2017? 2) What is the purpose of privately owned Traveller and Gypsy caravans in the UK?

3) Where did the victims of human trafficking usually work?

4) What was the benefit Rooney family made from the slave exploitation in Lincolnshire?

6) How many slaves were working for Rooney family?

7) Who forced the slave to dig his own grave?

8) Where did Rooneys find men to work for the family?

9) What did the slaves do seven days a week from dawn to dusk?

10) Did Rooneys beat their victims?

11) Were the slaves allowed to use mobile telephones?

12) Where did Rooney family spend their holidays?

13) How did Rooneys spend the cash made on slave exploitation?

13) Did the workers at any Travellers’ camp around UK operate under similar slave conditions?

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) В октябре 2013 года в Лондоне арестовали 67-летнего мужчину и его жену, которые 30 лет держали в рабстве 69-летнюю женщину из Малайзии, 57-летнюю ирландку и 30-летнюю британку. 2) Журналисты предполагали, что молодая женщина могла быть дочерью одной из старших рабынь. 3) Рабыни имели свои комнаты, но им запрещали выходить на улицу. 4) Преступников обнаружил отдел по борьбе с торговлей людьми Скотленд-ярда, который действовал вместе с организацией «Фридом чэрити» (Freedom Charity).

5. Present the general idea of the text in 4-6 sentences. 6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.
Human trafficking to UK


In 2012, there were an estimated 92 organized crime groups in the UK with known involvement in human trafficking. In Ilford, East London, the police moved in at 05:15 BST, smashing through the door of an end of terrace house, but without result. Two miles away in a second house, they found many Lithuanians living in one room. A stack of mail showed that a large number of people have stayed there before. Police questioned the Lithuanian women who said they were being paid below minimum wage to work in a recycling depot and building firm. The room costs £140 a week. They were victims of people trafficking. Police say those who try to run are often subject to violence. The report, published September 29, 2014, identified 2,744 people, including over 600 children, being trafficked. More than 40 percent of the victims were involved in the sex trade, while many ended up being used for forced manual labor. According to the NCA, in 2014, sex-slavery in the UK has jumped by 22 percent since 2013, as traffickers use online dating, social media and job recruitment sites to lure their victims. In some instances, women victims were lured into trafficking rings under the pretense of meeting someone posing as a love interest online. The NCA said that women had been brought to Britain in trafficking operations, having been bought for sums ranging from 200-6,000 pounds (US$324-$9720). In some cases, victims have been forced to hand over cash from sex work to their ‘pimps’ for sums up to 50,000 pounds ($81,000) to cover the costs of flights and travel documents. Teenagers from rural Vietnam, many of whom are orphans, are deliberately lied to by traffickers that they are coming over to the UK to work in restaurants and then find themselves forced to work in illegal Cannabis farms.  Women from Nigeria, many of whom have sworn to their traffickers not to run away or go to the authorities, arrive in the UK and are forced to work in prostitution. They never pay off their debt and are forced to keep working until they are no longer useful. Inspector Kevin Hyland, of London's Metropolitan Police - which sees the UK's highest rates of trafficking - said the majority of women victims travelled to the UK lawfully, often accompanied by their traffickers. The vast majority of them think they're coming to a better life in the UK," he said. Mr. Hyland said it was often "almost impossible" for border guards to spot victims because they often did not even know they were being trafficked. Many victims are promised jobs in the hotel or leisure industry, or as interpreters, but when they arrive they are "groomed or threatened" and used for sexual exploitation or sexual exploitation and hard labor. In London, police deal with more than 100 cases of trafficking a year. Some will involve more than 400 victims but the majority involve about 10 to 15 people. The report revealed the largest number of referrals of potential victims of trafficking were Nigerian nationals. From within Europe, Romanian nationals were the biggest group referred. The number of people being trafficked into the UK is rising, government estimates suggest. On September 29, 2014, there were 2,744 victims. In 2012, the authorities learned of 946 victims, compared with 710 in 2010, the inter-departmental ministerial group on human trafficking said. Trafficking gangs in eastern Europe (Romania, Poland, Albania, Slovakia, Lithuania), China, Vietnam, Nigeria pose the biggest threat to the UK, it said. The government said better co-ordination between its departments and with authorities abroad was key. But anti-slavery groups warned government "failures" had led to "significant steps back" in the fight. There is currently no official figure for the number of victims trafficked into the country each year. However, the report said 712 adult women victims and 234 child victims were reported in 2011 to the National Referral Mechanism, the official body that identifies and looks after those caught up in trafficking. Of the victims referred in 2010, 524 were adults and 186 were children. In 2011/2012, 142 defendants were charged with offences related to human trafficking. It is thought the increase could be explained by improvements in identifying victims, although campaigners say the figures of those being trafficked could be far higher as many victims choose not to come forward for fear of being deported.

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) an organized crime group, 2) human trafficking, 3) the sex trade, 4) forced manual labor, 5) to be paid below minimum wage, 6) victims of people trafficking, 7) to keep working until they are no longer useful, 8) come to a better life in the UK, 9) sexual exploitation and hard labor.

2. Answer the questions about the text in written form.

1) How many organized crime groups in the UK were involved in human trafficking?

2) Who worked in illegal Cannabis farms in the UK?

3) The trafficking gangs of what countries posed the biggest threat to their victims?

4) What city had the UK's highest rate of human trafficking?

5) How many people were trafficked in the UK in 2014?

6) What was the percentage of the victims involved in the sex trade?

7) Why did the majority of women victims travel to the UK lawfully?

8) What was the minimum wage in Britain in 2016?

9) Why did traffickers use online dating sites to lure their victims?

10) What was the usual promise for victims of work in Britain?

3. Translate the text from English into Russian aurally on the spot beginning with the words «The NCA said that women» and ending with the words «the biggest group referred».

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) В 2006 году в Скотленд-ярде создали постоянное подразделение «Центр по торговле людьми», расследовавшее торговлю секс-рабынями. 2) В 2007 году 55 полицейских подразделений Британии и Ирландии провели операцию по программе «Пентаметр-2» для освобождения 80 секс-рабынь, половина из которых была из Восточной Европы. 3) В начале 2007 года было объявлено, что за четыре месяца реализации программы «Пентатемтр-2» было арестовано 200 преступников и освобождены секс-рабыни, некоторым из которых было только 14 лет. 4) Следователи установили, что преступники устроили «аукцион рабынь» рядом с кафетерием в аэропорту Гатвик (Gatwik) южнее Лондона. 5) Обыски проводились в 515 борделях, а также в массажных кабинетах и частных домах, используемых в интересах владельцев секс-индустрии.

5. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-6 sentences. 6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.

7. Write a paper of 130-150 words on the post-Soviet states` women trafficking to UK.

U.K. Parliament Approves Unprecedented Surveillance Powers


A few years ago, it would have been unthinkable for the British government to admit that it was collecting private data on a massive scale. But now, these controversial tactics are about to be explicitly sanctioned in an unprecedented new surveillance law. In November 2016, the U.K.’s Parliament approved the Investigatory Powers Bill, dubbed the “Snoopers’ Charter” by critics. The law, which was expected to come into force before the end of 2016, was introduced in November 2015, after the fallout from revelations by National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden about extensive British mass surveillance. The Investigatory Powers Bill essentially retroactively legalizes the electronic spying programs exposed in the Snowden documents — and also expands some of the government’s surveillance powers. Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the new law is that it will give the British government the authority to serve internet service providers with a “data retention notice,” forcing them to record and store for up to 12 months logs showing websites visited by all of their customers. Law enforcement agencies will then be able to obtain access to this data without any court order or warrant. In addition, the new powers will hand police and tax investigators the ability to, with the approval of a government minister, hack into targeted phones and computers. The law will also permit intelligence agencies to sift through “bulk personal datasets” that contain millions of records about people’s phone calls, travel habits, internet activity, and financial transactions; and it will make it legal for British spies to carry out “foreign-focused” large-scale hacks of computers or phones in order to identify potential “targets of interest.”

Every citizen will have their internet activity — the apps they use, the communications they send, and to who — logged for 12 months,” says Eric King, a privacy expert and former director of Don’t Spy on Us, a coalition of leading British human rights groups that campaigns against mass surveillance. “There is no other democracy in the world, possibly no other country in the world, doing this.” King argues that the new law will cause a chilling effect, resulting in fewer people feeling comfortable communicating freely with one another. He cites a Pew survey published in March 2015 that found that 30 percent of American adults had altered their phone or internet habits due to concerns about government surveillance. “It’s going to change how people communicate and express their thoughts,” King says. “For a society that’s supposed to be progressive, that encourages open debate and dialogue, it’s awful.”

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) “Snoopers’ Charter”, 2) electronic spying programs, 3) to hack into targeted phones, 4) large-scale hacks of computers, 5) “targets of interest.”

2. Answer the questions about the text in written form.

1) Is the British government hacking into people’s phones and computers?

2) Who exposed to the public the British electronic spying programs?

3) What does the word «whistleblower» mean?

4) Who is able to obtain access to the UK Internet service providers data without any court order or warrant?

5) How long the Internet service providers must store logs showing websites visited by all of their customers?

6) What agency is able to look through records about people’s phone calls, travel habits, internet activity, and financial transactions?

7) What do the phrase “potential targets of interest” mean?

8) What was the percentage of American adults that altered their phone or internet habits due to concerns about government surveillance?

9) What is the purpose of the British government`s mass surveillance program?

3. Translate the text from English into Russian in writing beginning with the words «Every citizen will have» and ending with the words «it’s awful».

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) Слежку за британцами осуществляли десятки государственных организаций и пять спецслужб: американская АНБ, британская электронная разведки GCHQ, внутренняя разведка МИ-5, внешняя разведка МИ-6, полиция Скотленд-ярда, а также 10 тысяч частных детективов. 2) С момента изобретения мобильного телефона, персонального компьютера и вплоть до 2016 года электронную слежку за британцами вели тайно. 3) Британский закон 2016 года дал право следить за гражданами даже Департаменту труда и пенсионного обеспечения, а также Агентству по пищевым стандартам. 4) В конце ноября 2014 года британским солдатам, которые должны были ехать в Польшу на учения «Черный орел», запретили брать с собой мобильные телефоны и персональные компьютеры, поскольку командование знало, что через них можно дистанционно вести слежку.

5. Present the g eneral idea of the text in 4-6 sentences. 6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.

7. Write a paper of 150-170 words on the UK government snooping, hacking phones and personal computers of the UK citizens, cooperating with the US National Security Agency in the global phone and computer hacking.

UK`s new 3 bn aircraft carrier dismissed as «massive distraction»


Claims that the UK’s new £3bn aircraft carrier represents a “new era” of maritime power for post-Brexit Britain have been greeted with skepticism by former military officers. This ship is vulnerable to attack as modern weapon evolves. Critics have accused the Government of prioritizing the aircraft carriers over conventional forces while restricting the UK’s defense budget, plunging billions into two high-profile assets amid concern over expected cuts to Army troops and the Royal Marines. The Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) recently published a report warning that aircraft carriers were increasingly vulnerable to cheap missile attacks from potential adversaries like Russia, China and North Korea. Prof Louth, who is the director for defense, industries and society at RUSI, said more and more potential adversaries are gaining access to precision guided missiles and drones as technology advances and costs fall. He added that the idea of strike operations from aircraft carriers dated back to the Second World War, with the HMS Queen Elizabeth first conceived in 1998, but the nature of warfare has changed dramatically. In July 2017, an amateur photographer managed to land a £300 drone on the deck of the HMS Queen Elizabeth unchallenged while it was moored in Scotland. The Russian defense ministry has described the HMS Queen Elizabeth as “merely a large convenient naval target” and issued a threat to the Royal Navy warning it “not to show off the ‘beauty’ of its aircraft carrier” too close to Moscow’s assets. The 919ft, 65-000 tonne HMS Queen Elizabeth has been undergoing training and tests at sea after setting out from Scotland's Rosyth dockyard in June 2017 but no date has been set for operations to start, with trial flights of its 14 jets not due to begin until 2018.

1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.

1) potential adversaries, 2) the nature of warfare, 3) HMS (her majesty ship), 4) tests at sea, 5) a maritime power.

2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.

1) What was the cost of the two UK aircraft carriers?

2) What countries are considered to be the UK`s adversaries?

3) Is an aircraft carrier vulnerable to missile attacks?

4) When was the HMS Queen Elizabeth first conceived?

5) What invention has changed the nature of warfare dramatically?

6) Who landed a drone on the deck of the HMS Queen Elizabeth?

7) How many jets were planned to begin trial flights in 2018?

8) What is the length of the HMS Queen Elizabeth?

9) Why was the aircraft carrier called “a large convenient naval target”?

3. Translate the text in writing.

4. Translate into English aurally. 1) В 1982 году во время войны за Фолклендские (Мальвинские) острова на авианосцах Гермес и Инвинсибл базировались самолеты Си Харриер, которые прикрывали высадку морского десанта англичан. 2) Авианосец Гермес был флагманом группировки кораблей Британии. 2) Выпущенная аргентинским самолетом ракета Экзосет, которая не взорвалась, уничтожила новейший эсминец Шэффилд водоизмещением 4000 тонн. 3) Аргентинские истребители тремя бомбами поразили эсминец Ковентри водоизмещением 4000 тонн, который затонул через 20 минут. 4) За 74 суток войны самолеты Аргентины потопили только 6 кораблей эскадры Британии, потому что 80 % бомб не взорвались на английских кораблях.

5. Write a paper of 150-170 words on the combat ship`s vulnerability to aviation and rockets. Use information about the UK war against Argentina (1982).

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