The sixth fattest nation in the world
Spiraling obesity levels have left Britain the sixth fattest nation in the world, with rates rising faster even than those in the US, a new report shows. The obesity levels in the UK have risen by 92 per cent in just over two decades - by far the steepest rise among countries with an obesity problem. Experts said Britain was “sleepwalking” into a health crisis, after aping the US in adopting a ‘supersize’ culture, picked up from watching American television and films. The figures show 27 per cent of adults in Britain are now obese - a rise from 14 per cent in 1991. In addition, 36 per cent are overweight. It means the UK is now the fattest nation in Europe, with obesity rates twice those of countries like Italy and Sweden. And the study, which tracks 35 industrialized nations, shows Britain is now sixth worst for obesity across the globe. This is a rise from 10th place since the research was carried out two years ago, when UK obesity rates stood at 24.9 per cent. The new report shows the US still tops the obesity league tables, with rates of 38.2 per cent, followed by Mexico at 33.3 per cent. But the rise in the UK far outpaces that of any of the nations with an obesity problem, with a 92 per cent increase in obesity levels since 1991, compared with a rise of 65 per cent in the US. Mark Pearson, deputy director of employment, labor and social affairs, said obesity had become “the new normal” in Britain, with much of the culture imported from the United States.
1. Translate the text aurally on the spot. 2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.
1) obesity problem, 2) a health crisis, 3) “the new normal”, 4) a ‘supersize’ culture, 5) a “sleepwalking” into a health crisis.
3. Answer the questions about the text in writing.
1) Why did the obesity not become a crisis in 1960s and 1970s?
2) What is the meaning of a ‘supersize’ culture?
3) What was the connection between obesity and the import of the US culture to Britain?
4) Does obesity have a connection to consuming the GMO food?
4. Translate into English aurally. 1) В 2016 году более 10 % детей и подростков Британии 5-19 лет страдали ожирением. 2) Диагноз ожирение сохранится во взрослом возрасте, что мешает женщине выйти замуж и родить ребенка. 3) Эксперты полагали некоторыми причинами ожирения потребление Кока-Колы и других напитков с высоким содержанием сахара, а также продуктов ресторанов Макдональдс и им подобных. 4) В 2016 году Британия и другие 19 стран мира с помощью дополнительного налога повышали стотмость напитков с высоким содержанием сахара, чтобы сокращать их потребление молодежью.
The Immigration Problem
The UK (and especially England) is already densely populated by international standards and has a chronic shortage of housing. England is twice as crowded as Germany and nearly four times as crowded as France. We recognize that most migrants come to the UK for a very understandable reason, to try to better their lives, and that many make a positive contribution to our communities and to society. The issue is the scale that immigration has now reached with serious consequences for the size of our population and for the ability of our public services to cope. High levels of net migration to the UK are a relatively recent phenomenon. The UK has always experienced periods of immigration but never on remotely the current scale. In 1997 net migration (the number of people coming to the UK minus the number leaving) was just 47,000. In the years that followed it rose to well over 200,000 and peaked at 320,000 in 2005. Under the Labor government (1997-2010) an extra 3.6 million foreign migrants arrived, while one million British citizens left. The coalition government elected in 2010 pledged to reduce net migration to the ‘tens of thousands’. However, despite some reduction in migration from outside the European Union, overall net migration rose to a third of a million. This is largely because net migration from the EU doubled over the last Parliament due to the ongoing disparity in wealth between Eastern Europe and the UK together with the Eurozone crisis affecting Southern Europe. Net migration from Europe is now almost equal to that from outside the EU. This no doubt played an important role in the decision taken by the British people to leave the European Union. Under the Conservative government net migration now stands at an estimated 335,000 for the year ending June 2016. High net migration has resulted in rapid population growth. The UK population currently stands at 65 million. The Office of National Statistics ‘high’ migration scenario, which assumes net migration of 265,000, projects that the UK population will now increase by around 500,000 a year - the equivalent to a new city the size of Liverpool every year. This is unsustainable. It would result in the population growing by nearly eight million over the next fifteen years bringing it to 73 million in 2032. The ONS state that around 75% of this increase will be down to future migrants and their children. The remaining population growth will come from the UK’s existing population, including births to immigrants already here. Population growth would not stop there. It would continue to soar towards 80 million in 2042 and keep going upwards. The greater the number of new arrivals, the harder it is for migrants to become fully integrated in British society. Trevor Phillips, the former head of the Equalities and Human Rights Commission, warned back in 2005 that the UK was “sleep walking into segregation”. Between 2009 and 2013, the average number of people granted British citizenship per year was 195,800. The main countries of previous nationality of those naturalized in 2014 were Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Somalia, South Africa. In 2016, more than 10 million people in the UK were foreign-born and in London 45 percent of the population were not Englishmen. There were 19 foreign-born groups that are listed of at least 100,000 individuals residing in the UK - people originating from India (776603 - UN 2015 estimate), Pakistan (540495), China (302618), Bangladesh (230543), Nigeria (216268), Kenya (151073), Philippines (139570), Sri Lanka (138752), Zimbabwe (132942), Somalia (110775), Ghana (102837), Turkey (100956). Immigrants usually live inside their ethnic communities and don’t integrate into the British society. A large majority (76%) of the UK public want to see immigration reduced.
1. Translate the text aurally on the spot.
2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.
1) a shortage of housing, 2) to better the life, 3) an understandable reason, 4) disparity in wealth, 5) to integrate into the society.
3. Answer the questions about the text in written form.
1) Why did immigrants not integrate into the British society?
2) How many foreign migrants arrived in the UK in 1997-2010?
3) Why did foreign migrants prefer to settle in London?
4) Why did immigration problem have influence on the decision taken by the British people to leave the European Union?
5) What was the projected UK population annual increase?
6) What was the population of Liverpool in 2017?
7) Did Liverpool have large ethnic minority groups?
4. Translate the text from English into Russian in writing beginning with the words «The Office of National Statistics» and ending with the words «to see immigration reduced».
5. Translate into English aurally. 1) Жители полагают восток Лондона подобием гетто и называют его словом «бедный» (poor), а юг города называют «грубым» (rough), поскольку эти районы заселены иммигрантами. 2) Журналист сказал, что белое престарелое население восточного Лондона «стремится к нулю». 3) В лондонском районе Пэкхэм расположено нигерийское гетто, где также живут выходцы из других африканских стран. 4) Лондонское гетто Банглатаун населено выходцами из Бангладеш и Индии. 5) В престижных районах Лондона мусорщиками работают выходцы из Литвы, Латвии и Эстонии, которые подбирают выброшенные вещи, стирают их и продают на аукционах в гетто.
6. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.
7. Write a paper of 150-170 words on the ethnic communities in London and the problem of their integration into the British society.
If elections loom in 2017 in the Netherlands, France, Germany and (probably) Italy, among others produce more fiercely nationalist governments, that will make Britain more difficult to negotiate a Brexit. Speaking at the European Policy Centre alongside Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker, president of the European Parliament Martin Schultz and Donald Tusk issued a damning comment aimed at British foreign secretary Boris Johnson, by insisting there would be "no cake" on the table when it comes to the negotiations, only "salt and vinegar". Johnson previously described his position when it comes to leaving the EU by reiterating his famous phrase: "My policy on cake is pro-having it and pro-eating it". Mr. Hollande said: “The UK has decided to do a Brexit. I believe even a hard Brexit. Well, then we must go all the way through the UK’s willingness to leave the EU. We have to have this firmness. [If not] we would jeopardize the fundamental principles of the EU. Other countries would want to leave the EU to get the supposed advantages without the obligations. There must be a threat, there must be a risk, there must be a price.” Michel Sapin, France’s Finance Minister, said: “There will be /banking/ activities taking place in London that will only be able to take place on the territory of the European Union.” If London loose international banking, the UK will become poorer in future.
Six months after vote academics said Brexit shapes up to be 'hard'. For those blithely inclined toward the view that Britain would somehow find a way to sever its relationship with the European Union free of drama or financial consequences — like canceling a car rental reservation, with a tad more paperwork — Friday was a sobering day of reckoning. As the British pound plunged some 6 percent against the American dollar in the span of two minutes in early trading in Asia, the markets offered a reminder that divorce tends to be messy, expensive and laced with uncertainties. Divorce rarely ends happily.
The pro-EU campaign group Open Britain warned that leaving the customs union could see British trade fall by 15.6% and see foreign investment to the UK drop by 20%. New research by the Change Britain campaign showed that a huge £24 billion a year prize is up for grabs if Theresa May rejects a so called “soft Brexit”. Their option – which it describes as “clean Brexit” – could see annual savings of almost £10.4 billion from contributions to the EU budget and £1.2 billion from scrapping “burdensome” regulations, while also allowing the UK to forge new trade deals worth at least £12.3 billion. But a “soft Brexit” would see Britain continue to stay in the EU’s single market and customs union so forced to pay into the EU budget and unable to end freedom of movement.
Post-Brexit the British government would like to have the economic benefits of participation in the single Europe market while getting rid of such single market obligations as free movement of EU citizens and EU economic regulations. Doing so would give Britain what many MPs would regard as the best of both worlds. However, this soft Brexit could only be achieved if the European Union were prepared to depart from its principle that the free movement of labor and obedience to EU regulations are necessary conditions of participating in the single market. In common with President of the European Commission Jean Claude Junker, Schulz views Britain as wanting to have its cake and eat it too. They fear that any concession to the UK would start an avalanche of demands for exemption from EU rules by other member states. They also fear it would strengthen the hand of anti-EU parties challenging national governments to reduce their commitment to the EU and encourage them to follow the UK in opting for a soft exit.
British Prime Minister Theresa May urges her EU counterparts to make Brexit as "smooth and orderly as possible" as they prepare to discuss the process at a dinner without her. Six months after Britain voted to leave the European Union, the signs are pointing to a "hard" Brexit, according to a report by 12 academics and policy researchers. The shock decision has united the 27 other EU members to a degree rarely seen, while exposing how divided Britain is, UK in a Changing Europe, an EU-funded research program based at King's College London, said in a report published Friday. Brexit has led to a reorganization of government and laid bare disarray in the opposition Labor Party, the researchers from nine universities and the National Institute of Economic and Social Research said.
Theresa May prepared to start two years of Brexit talks by triggering Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty by the end of March 2017. She has refused to flesh out her negotiating priorities, citing the risk of handing an advantage to her EU counterparts, and there is little clarity over how she intends to reconcile her twin demands for maximum access to the single market and control over immigration. The complexities range from dealing with the demands of devolved administrations in Scotland and Northern Ireland, where voters wanted to remain in the EU, to paying debts and setting up new regulatory bodies. May needs to reach two main agreements: one on the divorce arrangements and another covering the new relationship between Britain and the EU. While Britain wants to work on both deals simultaneously, Michel Barnier, the chief EU negotiator, favors the traditional European approach of negotiating treaties one chapter at a time.
"If there was good will on both sides, you could see the two sets of negotiations -- the divorce and the future relationship -- being done in parallel," said Catherine Barnard, a professor of European law at the University of Cambridge. "At the moment, the EU is playing hardball on this, and they're saying we're not going to even start negotiating any future deal until you become a third state." That means Britain faces a "chasm" between the moment of divorce, probably in April 2019, and a future deal kicking in -- a space that needs to be filled by transitional arrangements, said Barnard. May said she's contemplating "an implementation phase" to give British companies time to adapt to a post-Brexit regime. She may have to deal with EU demands for as much as 60 billion euros to cover outstanding liabilities, including pensions for EU civil servants. "The money issue is going to be far more potent than has been let on so far," said Iain Begg, a politics professor at the London School of Economics. He said that because EU budgets are agreed for a seven-year period, Britain could be liable for payments until the end of 2020, even if it departs in early 2019. To provide a degree of certainty, the government plans a "Great Repeal Act" to convert existing EU legislation into domestic law. Even so, there may be 100 EU monitoring and regulatory agencies referenced in EU law that the UK will have to set up equivalents for, according to Barnard. "The range of issues that have got to be negotiated are vast and complex and will require supreme skills," Barnard said. Reaching a Brexit deal "may well take a whole lot longer" than the 18 months that Barnier has set as a limit in order to give the European Parliament time to approve it.
Britons are "little closer to knowing what Brexit actually means," said Anand Menon, professor of European politics at King's College. Even if Britain does save a lot of money by not having to contribute to the EU budget, she still loses a considerable income from the EU. In 2016, Britain was earning approximately 400 billion pounds from the EU annually by trading a lot of EU - almost 50% of her annual business. There would be no cheap EU goods coming in, and the British industries are likely to take a hit. Being part of the EU basically means the freedom to trade within a huge free trade zone. Brexit would eventually mean that the harsh trade rules and restrictions would be imposed on Britain as a non-EU nation. Maintaining presence in the EU economy and reaping profits from the EU nations would become costlier, naturally. Brexit means «Goodbye to low cost import from the EU». The prices in the UK would rise, tourism to the UK would certainly become pricier and less tourists would be able to economically afford staying in the UK. Generally speaking, Brexit would end Britain`s «golden years» because the prices would grow higher and the native English population would grow older.
1. Translate the text aurally on the spot beginning with the words «If elections loom» and ending with the words «the UK will become poorer in future».
2. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.
1) a Changing Europe, 2) to get the advantages without the obligations. 3) "The policy on cake is pro-having it and pro-eating it". 4) Divorce rarely ends happily. 5) to sever the relationship free of financial consequences, 6) the best of both worlds, 7) wanting to have its cake and eat it too, 8) a good will on both sides.
3. Answer the questions about the text in writing.
1) When was Britain expected to end payments to the EU budget?
2) What is the cost of Britain`s outstanding liabilities, including pensions for EU civil servants?
3) What was the purpose of "an implementation phase" for British companies?
4) Why are the British companies in need to adapt to a post-Brexit regime?
5) What is the meaning of a "hard Brexit"?
6) What are the EU necessary conditions of participating in the single market?
7) Why did the EU high official view Britain as wanting to have its cake and eat it too?
8) Can Britain continue to stay in the EU’s single market and customs union after Brexit?
9) Why was Britain and EU divorce expected to be messy?
10) Why was the British trade expected to fall after Brexit?
11) Why can London lose the part of international banking after Brexit?
4. Translate the text in writing beginning with the words «Post-Brexit the British government» and ending with the words «the UK in opting for a soft exit».
5. Translate into English aurally. 1) Решение о брексите усилило сепаратизм Шотландии и Северной Ирландии, что вызвало применение Лондоном тоталитарных методов борьбы против распада королевства. 2) Британию после брексита заставят платить пошлины за экспорт своей продукции, 50 % которой в 2016 г. продавали в ЕС. 3) Брексит уменьшит размер рынка экспортных товаров Британии в ЕС, увеличит безработицу, уменьшит уровень зарплат. 4) После брексита резко сократится количества новых иммигрантов, что усилит экономические проблемы предпринимателей Британии, поскольку пропадет возможность использовать дешевую рабочую силу новых иммигрантов.
6. Present aurally the general idea of the text in 4-6 sentences. 7. Write the text`s summary and its 5 key words in English.
8. Write a paper of 150-170 words on the post-Brexit economic and demographic problems in the UK.
The Telegraph, January 7, 2013
Leading yoga teacher believes that time well spent on your yoga mat can transform every aspect of your life off it. Simon Low tells about his own journey from burned-out music mogul to blissed-out yogi. ‘Yoga is as relevant to the milkman as to the yoga teacher. It originally came about 2,000 years ago as a way of man dealing with his psychology. The Yoga Sutra, the most important text, is a kind of psychological guide. What is fascinating is that the human condition hasn’t changed. Our mind still has the potential to separate us from a peaceful state of contentment in life…’ Simon Low, 55, arguably the most celebrated British yoga teacher, is holding forth in the vast white living-room of a friend’s house in south London. He now lives in Spain, but spends much of the year travelling, the winter months in the Far East, particularly Thailand – where he runs an intensive teacher-training course – the summer in Spain and Turkey, with weekends in Kent throughout the year. You can tell Low is a man who is used to an audience, used to being listened to. The difference is that today he has an audience of only one, rather than the usual 20-odd, and that I am sitting next to him on the sofa rather than bending and deep-breathing my way through a yoga session. I have practiced yoga for many years, but I also began to develop niggling problems: a low-level yet constant feeling of physical tiredness. In retrospect, it was yoga as a competitive sport. Low says he has been there himself. ‘I did it too in the beginning. I was exploring doing things faster, without any rest, and I was exhausted. You can look across a classroom and it is just horrifying what you see some teachers asking students to do.’ When the book The Science of Yoga, by William Broad, came out last year, criticizing many in the yoga community for failing to be open about the extent to which yoga can induce injury when not practiced responsibly, Low says he was cautiously pleased.
In 2001 Low discovered yin and yang yoga: yang a dynamic practice that draws on disciplines such as t’ai chi, yin paced more slowly; each designed для as balance for the other. ‘I felt stronger, more energized. I haven’t had a yoga injury since.’ Low believes that your time on the yoga mat should be breaking not reinforcing the tendencies in your life off the mat; that someone with a busy, at times stressful job and life should not be having a busy, stressful time in their yoga practice, too. When I first practiced with Low on a holiday in Thailand we began each day with three hours of yang yoga, in which you flow comparatively swiftly from one asana or posture into another. Yin yoga, in contrast, is a slow series of static postures, each one held for at least three minutes, with lots of props, the heart rate slowed rather than raised. Low went on to become one of the founders of Triyoga, the London studio that was key to growing the popularity of yoga here, but he left after three years. ‘I am still very happy with my part in Triyoga but I wanted more time to teach, to research. What does the future hold for Simon Low? He will continue his work as patron of the Hope Foundation, a charity that helps the street and slum children of Calcutta. But above all, life will continue to be about yoga, of course. ‘Researching, teaching, researching, teaching.’ Though less travelling. ‘I want to develop a yoga retreat in this country, a beautiful state-of-the-art environment that is quintessentially British, a place where people can learn, grow, blossom. It is my calling, my responsibility to the British yoga community.’
1. Find the Russian equivalents of the following.
1) to be used to an audience, 2) a yoga injury, 3) a yoga retreat, 4) state-of-the-art environment, 5) quintessentially British, 6) a blissed-out yogi, 7) to transform every aspect of life, 8) Yoga is not relevant to the milkman.
2. Answer the questions about the text in writing.
1) What is the percentage of intensively practicing yoga Indians?
2) Why was Simon Low not teaching yoga in Britain?
3) What were Simon Low`s yoga students in Thailand and Spain?
4) Is it absolutely safe to practice yoga?
5) What is a yoga injury?
6) Are the British Army and NAVY officers practicing yoga?
7) Can yoga induce injury when not practiced responsibly?
8) Why is yang yoga increasing the heart rate?
9) Is Yoga really relevant to the British or the Danish milkman?
10) Why is Yoga incompatible with the Chinese culture of Wushu?
3. Translate the text aurally.
4. Translate the text in writing beginning with the words «I have practiced yoga»