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Методическое пособие по развитию навыков чтения и говорения на английском языке для студентов


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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь

Учреждение образования

«Белорусский государственный университет

информатики и радиоэлектроники»

Кафедра иностранных языков №2



ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ
МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ ЧТЕНИЯ И ГОВОРЕНИЯ

НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ФИТиУ

ВСЕХ ФОРМ ОБУЧЕНИЯ
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

TEACHING AID

FOR FULL AND PART TIME COMPUTER STUDENTS

Минск БГУИР 2012

УДК 811.111(076)

ББК 81.2Англ я73

И74

Составители:

Н. И. Дубовец, О. В. Туник, Т. В. Булавская, Л.С. Карпик,

Р. И. Коваленко, М. В. Ладыженко, Е. Д. Лысенок, Р.Т.Максимчук,

Р. К. Образцова, О.В. Пинчук, А.И. Рогачевская,

Л.Е. Синкевич, И. Г. Субботкина


Рецензия:

кандидат филологических наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой межкультурной экономической коммуникации УО «Белорусский государственный экономический университет» Н. П. Могиленских


кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков

ИУК «Академии управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь»

О.В. Соколовская

И74
Информационные технологии: метод. пособие по развитию навыков чтения и говорения на английском языке для студентов ФИТиУ = Information Technologies / Сост. Н. И. Дубовец [и др.]. - Минск : БГУИР, 2012. – 65 с.

ISBN
В пособие вошли 8 разделов: Information and Information Technologies, Hardware, Software, Information Systems Analysis, Information Systems Design, Databases, Artificial Intelligence, Networks. В данных разделах авторами-составителями предложены оригинальные тексты по тематике информационных технологий, а также специально созданный комплекс упражнений, которые нацелены на развитие и совершенствование навыков изучающего и поискового чтения. В каждом разделе представлены задания, направленные на реализацию речевого намерения в ситуациях общения по специальности.

Пособие соответствует типовой программе по иностранным языкам для неязыковых вузов и предназначено для студентов первой и второй ступеней всех форм обучения.

УДК 811.11(076)

ББК 81.2Англ я73

ISBN

© УО «Белорусский государственный университет

информатики и радиоэлектроники», 2012

UNIT I: INFORMATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
Active vocabulary


1. Accuracy (n) – точность, правильность

11. Interpret (v) – толковать, истолковывать

2. Complete (adj) – полный

12. Obtain (v) – получать, добывать

3. Convey (v) – передавать

13. Output (n,v) – вывод; выводить

4. Create (v) – создавать

14. Perform (v) – выполнять

5. Current (adj) – текущий

15. Process (v) – обрабатывать

6. Data (n) – данные

16. Relevance (n) – уместность, актуальность

7. Device – устройство

17. Store (v) – хранить

8. Define (v) – определять

18. Support (v) –поддерживать, содействовать

9. Display (v) – показывать

19. Timely (adj) – своевременный

10. Input (n, v) – ввод; вводить

20. Up to date (adj) – современный, новейший


Text A: Information
To understand the nature of information and what it is, you must understand another term – data.

Data are any raw facts or observations that describe a particular phenomenon. For example, the current temperature, the cost of a part, and your age are all data.

Information is simply data that has a particular meaning within a specific context. For example, if you are trying to decide what to wear, the current temperature is information because it is necessary to your decision what to wear.

Information may be data that have been processed in some way. Processing is a series of actions or operations that convert input into output. When we speak of data processing, the input is data, the output is useful information. So, data processing is a series of actions or operations that converts data into useful information.

The interchange of the words data and information is widespread, so the differences between them are:

Data: - Facts, statistics used for reference or analysis.

- Numbers, characters, symbols, images that can be processed by a computer.

- Data must be interpreted, by a human or machine, to derive meaning.

- «Data is a representation of information»



Information: - Knowledge derived from study, experience or instructions.

- Communication of intelligence.

- Information is any kind of knowledge that is exchangeable among people, about things, facts.

- «Information is interpreted data»


1. Read the questions and circle the correct answer.
1. What is the raw material?

a) information; b) number; c) data

2. What is used for reference or analysis?

a) data; b) people; c) information

3. What is information?

a) storage; b) output; c) input

4. What is knowledge?

a) data; b) computer; c) information

5. What converts data into information?

a) storage; b) processing; c) output


2. Match the words with their synonyms.


1) to derive from; 2) particular; 3) intelligence; 4) to process;

5) data; 6) up to date; 7) to interpret



a) cleverness; b) facts or numbers; c) to understand; d) certain;

e) modern, new, up to now; f) to come from; h) to deal with




3. Read the sentences choosing the correct word in bold type.
1. Data is processed to become useful/useless information.

2. Processing/storing is a series of operations converting input into output.

3. System model shows that data/information goes into a process.

4. Data are a collection of facts that can be processed by a person/computer.

5. We use the term data processing/data file to include the resources applied for processing of information.

6. Information is raw/meaningful material.


4. Give the Russian equivalents.


1) the nature of information; 2) to describe a phenomenon; 3) meaning within a specific context; 4) to convert input into output; 5) a series of actions; 6) to derive from experience; 7) communication of intelligence


5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. How do data differ from information?

2. Give the examples of data and information.

3. What is data processing?

4. What is input/output?

5. What is the definition of data/information?

Text B: Characteristics of useful information
What makes certain information highly valuable and other information completely worthless? There are three dimensions of information – time, content, and form. Using these three dimensions, you can define the characteristics of information that has value to you.

The time dimension of information deals with the «when» aspect of information. Time characteristics of information include: timeliness and currency. Timeliness means having information when you need it. If you do not have the right time, it is almost impossible to make the right decision. Currency means having the most recent or up-to-date information.

Content deals with the «what» aspect of information, and its characteristics include accuracy, relevance and completeness. The accuracy characteristics of information specifies that the information you receive is information that has been processed correctly, it is free of errors. The relevance and completeness characteristics of information go hand in hand. That is, you should receive only information that is relevant to your task, useful to what you are trying to do (relevance) and you should receive all the information you need, it completely details what you want to know (completeness).

The last dimension of information is form, which deals with the « how» aspect of information. Form characteristics of information include detail and presentation. The detail characteristic of information deals with receiving information that either summarizes or details information at the appropriate level. Presentation means that information is provided in the most appropriate form – narrative, graphics, color, print, video, sound, and so on.


1. Mark the following statements as True or False.
1. Time, content and form are the dimensions of data.

2. Information received too late is relevant.

3. The information must be current as a fact of yesterday may not be a fact of today.

4. The information must be accurate as inaccurate information would lead to many different major problems.

5. Information should contain only one detail required by the user.
2. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.


1) cacaruyc; 2) elearnvec; 3) ryruncec; 4) tetoncn; 5) ifimatonorn; 6) midisenon


3. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
1. … means having information when you need it.

a) completeness; b) timeliness; c) relevance


2. If you don’t know who writes any material, you cannot be sure that the information is … .

a) reliable; b) timely; c) concise

3. Information should be in a form that is … enough to allow for its examination and use.

a) long; b) up to date; c) short

4. A marketing report that includes graphs of statistics is … .

a) concise; b) timely; c) relevant

5. Information should be … to the purpose for which it is required.

a) concise; b) long; c) relevant

6. … means that information is provided in the most appropriate form.

a) currency; b) presentation; c) accuracy


4. Give the English equivalents.


1) измерение информации; 2) последняя (новейшая) информация;

3) обрабатывать без ошибок; 4) соответствующий задаче; 5) представлять в наиболее подходящей форме; 6) резюмировать или подробно описывать информацию




5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. What are the dimensions of information?

2. What is the «when» aspect of information?

3. What are content characteristics?

4. What does «accurate information» mean?

5. What does «presentation» mean?

Text C: Information technology
Information Technology, or IT, has only been a part of business and industry for about 50 years. But if we look back into the 1960s, the term Information Technology was only used to describe the process of storing information. Now IT is one of the most important resources in today’s business and successful companies invest a lot of money in IT.

Formally, Information Technology could be defined as any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs for an organization. IT includes keyboard, screen, mouse, modem, printer, word processing software and operating system software.

There is a separate IT department in almost all big organizations. They use IT in three ways:

1. To support information-processing task such as creating presentations, Web sites.

2. To enable innovations: IT gives the possibility to develop a more efficient way to handle the information-processing task related to delivering packages.

3. To reduce time and space: IT allows organizations to store huge amount of information in one small space and to use less time to process and send it.

But it should be mentioned that IT plays a major role not only in business but also in the personal life of millions of people. We can now connect to our friends and relatives in just a few minutes. All this has become possible because of the amazing features of IT.
1. Link the beginning and the end of the sentence.


1. Today almost all big companies

a) to handle the information-processing task.

2. The term Information Technology

b) we need to send information.

3. We can connect to our friends

c) have a separate IT department.

4. IT allows us to reduce the time

d) started to be used in the 1960s.

5. Using IT we can develop the best way

e) with the help of IT.


2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.


  1. determine; b) minimize; c) produce ; d) vast; e) area; f) manage; g) keep


3. Complete these sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.


  1. store; b) tool; c) support; d) process; e) resources; f) information

1. Nowadays IT is one of the most important … in today’s business.

2. IT is used to … information-processing tasks.

3. Organizations use IT to reduce the time it takes to … information.

4. IT helps businesses to … huge amount of information in one small space.

5. In the 1960s the term IT was used to describe the process of storing … .

6. We can define IT as any computer-based … that is used to work with information.
4. Find the terms to the given definitions.
1. Computer programs that assist the user in producing documents.

2. The branch of an organization that uses computers and other digital devices to process and manage information.

3. An input device that allows the user to manipulate objects on the screen.

4. The software that controls the computer’s use of its hardware resources.

5. The device that changes the characteristics of a digital signal into an analog one.

5. Answer the questions.
1. When did IT appear in business and industry?

2. What does IT include?

3. What are the three main ways of using IT?

4. Why do companies invest money in IT?

5. What role does IT play in your life?
Text D: Categories of information-processing tasks
As we have already learnt, companies and businesses use Information Technology (IT) to do information-processing tasks. These tasks range from computing and printing checks to creating the site from which customers can order products. Because IT is a set of tools for working with information, we can easily categorize different IT tools according to what information-processing tasks we have to perform. In general, there are five categories of information-processing tasks:

-Obtaining information. We get information at its point of origin by using different input devices, such as mouse, keyboard.

-Conveying information. The information is presented in its most useful form with the help of screen, printer and other output and display devices.

-Creating information. We process information using, for example, word processing software.

- Storing information. Using different storage technologies, the information is stored for use at a later time.



-Communicating information. We send information to other people or to another location with the help of telecommunication technologies.

It’s possible to look at each of these information-processing tasks separately but finally we’ll have to combine them to create a system that performs all the tasks. Performing of any particular task-- finance, marketing and management -- always involves these five information-processing tasks.




  1. Agree or disagree with the following statement.

1. IT is a set of tools for working with information.

2. There are four categories of information-processing tasks.

3. It is possible to work with the categories of information-processing tasks only separately.

4. Keyboard is an input device that helps to obtain information.

5. IT tools help professionals to make their work more efficient.




  1. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text.




  1. divide; b) together; c) useless ; d) destroy; e) get; f) hide; g) input

  1. Complete the sentences using active vocabulary.

a) IT tools are used to … different tasks.

b) We … information using different input devices.

c) It’s necessary to … all the information-processing tasks to… a system that executes all the tasks.

d) Any raw facts or observations are called … .

e) To…information we need to have output and display devices.

f) Having the most recent or up-to-date information means that this information is ….



4. Read the sentences translating the Russian fragments into English.
1. (Передача информации) it is one of the categories of information-processing tasks.

2. Using different storage technologies the information (сохраняется) to be used for a later time.

3. Organizations and companies use IT to do (задачи по обработке информации).

4. To obtain information we use different (устройства ввода).

5. Information must be (точной and своевременной).

6. (Обработка данных) is a series of actions that converts data into useful information.





  1. Answer the questions.




  1. How many categories of information-processing tasks do you know?

  2. Are these tasks used separately or all together?

  3. What is IT?

  4. What is information?

  5. What is “conveying information”?



SPEAKING PRACTICE
Speak on the following topics.


  1. The differences between data and information.

  2. Characteristics of information.

  3. Information technology; three ways of using IT.

  4. Different categories of information-processing tasks.


UNIT II: COMPUTER HARDWARE
Active Vocabulary


1. Accomplish – совершать, выполнять

2. Area – область, участок

3. Available – доступный; имеющийся в распоряжении,

4. Bus – шина; канал

5. Capacity – ёмкость; пропускная способность

6.Circuit – схема; цепь; контур

7. Clock/computer clock – тактовый генератор

8. Digital – цифровой; дискретный

9. Execute – осуществлять, выполнять

10. Increase – возрастать, увеличивать



11. Means – средство; способ

12. Predetermined – заранее установленный

13. Provide – предоставлять; обеспечивать

14. Pulse – импульс

15. Rate – скорость; частота

16. Resolution – разрешение, разрешающая способность

17. Retrieve – извлекать (хранимую) информацию

18. Transfer – передавать; пересылать

19. Via – посредством (ч-л.), с помощью



Text A: Computer Information System Hardware
Hardware includes any machinery (now digital) that assists in the input, processing, storage and output activities of an information system. The distinguishing feature of a computer is its ability to store its own instructions. This ability makes it possible for a computer to perform many operations: to repeat its operations, store the results of its calculations for later use, make logical decisions, compare results with other data, and on the basis of such comparisons change the series of operation it performs. The computer can process, store, and retrieve data without human intervention.

Computer system hardware includes the central processing unit (CPU), input devices, output devices, communications devices, primary and secondary storage devices. Each central processing unit (CPU) includes: the arithmetic/logic unit, the control unit, the register areas, basic I/O devices. Since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons. The control unit sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers, primary storage, secondary storage and various output devices. Registers are high-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before, during and after execution by the CPU. Primary storage, also called main memory or just memory holds program instructions and data immediately before or immediately after the registers. The various circuits processing data in the computer’s interior must operate in a highly synchronized manner; this is accomplished by controlling them with a very stable oscillator, which acts as the computer’s “clock”. The CPU produces a series of electronic pulses at a predetermined rate, called the clock speed, which affects machine cycle time. Clock speed is measured in megahertz, where one hertz means one cycle or pulse per second. Computer clock rates may range from several million cycles per second to several hundred million or even a billion cycles per second.



1. Read the questions and circle the correct answer.

1. A computer is an electronic device that computes, so what makes a computer different from other electronic devices? a) ability to process data; b) ability to store its own instructions; c) ability to repeat operations

2. What operations does the ALU execute? a) retrieves instructions ; b) makes logical comparisons; c) temporarily stores data;

3. How does a computer know what operation to perform? a) using its instructions ; b) asking for advice; c) just carrying out calculations

4. What are registers? a) units of instructions; b) logical comparisons operations; c) high-speed storage areas

5. Clock speed is measured in a) bytes b) (mega)hertz c) meters d) bits


2. Match the words with their synonyms.


1) distinguish; 2) calculation; 3) execute; 4) area; 5)via; 6) affect; 7) operate; 8)pulse

a) by means of; b) mark out; c) room, space; d) (о машине) run; e) fulfill;

f) computation; g) influence, impact





3. Read the sentences choosing the correct word in bold type.

1. A computer is an electronic device that helps with processing data. 2. Mathematical calculations are fulfilled in the ALU. 3. Machine cycle time is influenced by the clock oscillator rate. 4. The clock oscillator generates electronic pulses at a predetermined speed. 5. The control unit accesses program instructions one by one.


4. Give the Russian equivalents.


1) retrieve; 2) various; 3) range; 4) control; 5) accomplish; 6) various; 7) computer clock


5. Find the answers to the questions.

1. What component of the computer accomplishes logical comparisons? 2. Where are programs held before they get to the registers? 3. Is a CPU a peripheral device? 4. Where are mathematical computations and logical comparisons executed? 5. Where is data held just before it is processed?



Text B: Data Processing Means
The CPU and memory – are both housed together in the same box, called the system unit. All other computer system devices are linked into the system unit housing. The execution of any machine-level instruction involves two phases: the instruction phase and the execution phase. The results are stored in registers or memory. After both phases have been completed for one instruction, they are again performed for the second instruction, and so on. The instruction phase followed by the execution phase is called a machine cycle. Machine cycle times are measured in microseconds or in terms of how many instructions are executed in a second. Today’s central processing units speed up processing by using pipelining, when the CPU gets one instruction, decodes another, and executes a third at the same time.

Data is moved within a computer system in a group of bits. A bit (b) is a binary digit– 0 or 1. The processing speed is the number of bits the CPU can process at any one time. This number of bits is called the word length of the CPU. The larger word length increases the speed of processing. Each CPU produces a series of electronic pulses at a predetermined rate, called the clock speed, which affects machine cycle time. Clock speed is often measured in megahertz (where one hertz means one cycle or pulse per second).

Data is transferred from the CPU to other system components via bus lines the physical wiring that connects the computer system components. The number of bites a bus line can transfer any time is known as bus line width. Bus line width should be matched with CPU word length for optimal system performance. The larger is word length, the more powerful is the computer. Most CPUs are collections of digital circuits imprinted on silicon wafers, or chips. Reducing the distance between the points of destination on chips increases the speed of processing. Chips built from less resistant superconductive metals also increase processing speed.
1. Mark the following statements as true or false.
1. The system unit holds the CPU and I/O devices. 2. The instruction phase and the execution phase of a machine instruction are performed simultaneously. 3. The CPU performance is decreased by using pipelining. 4. Transferring data from the CPU to other system components involves using bus lines.

5. The word length of the CPU affects the computer performance.


2. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.
a) aefnrrst; b)eeiilnpp; c) deghlnortw; d)acefft; e) acemopr;

f) tciriuc; g) cudcteinoprsuve


3. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
1. The instruction to be executed is … from memory by the control unit.

a) affected; b) linked; c) retrieved; d) involved

2. Relevant data is … from memory to the register storage area.

a) built; b) transferred; c) processed; d) decoded

3. The instruction is decoded so the central processor can understand what is to be …

a) executed; b) accessed; c) held; d) followed

4. After both phases have been … for one instruction, they are again executed for the second instruction.

a) decoded; b) moved; c) measured; d) accomplished

5. Pipelining … the speed of processing.

a) produces; b) increases; c) decreases; d) affects

6. The clock speed is a series of electronic pulses produces by the oscillator at a predetermined … .

a) rate; b) power; c) length; d) connection


4. Give the English equivalents.


1) посредством (чего-л.); 2) заранее установленный; 3) мощный; 4)скорость; частота; 5) шина, 6) уменьшать; сокращать; 7) конвейерная обработка информации)


5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. In what form is data transferred between the components of the computer? 2. What means are used to move data from the central processor to other system components? 3. What does the word length of the CPU specify? 4. How can the performance of the CPU be increased? 5. What is a machine cycle?


Text C: Data Storage Devices

Data storage devices may be used either as a memory or as a secondary storage device. In most cases, storage capacity is measured in bytes, with one byte (B) usually equal to one character.

Primary storage is the memory part of the computer itself. It includes RAM and ROM. Random access memory (RAM) chips are mounted directly on the computer’s main circuit board. RAM is temporary and volatile. It is used to store instructions and data temporarily. Read-only memory (ROM) – is usually nonvolatile. ROM provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, like programs and data from the computer manufacturer. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that controls loading the computer’s operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on.

The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that perform much more rapidly than the main memory area. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items.

Cache memory is a type of high-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory. A cache controller determines how often the data is used, transfers frequently used data to cache memory, and deletes the data when it goes out of use.

Programs and data that are not currently being used in main storage can be saved on secondary storage. The secondary storage is non-volatile and has greater capacity. Secondary storage devices include: internal and external hard drives, CDs, DVDs, flash memory, USB flash drives, etc. The hard drives are one of the most important of the secondary data storage devices. “Flash drive” is a solid state drive technology that stores data like a typical hard drive found in most PCs, but uses no moving parts. Flash drives come in many forms. For example, a USB flash drive – a very small, very portable storage device which can be plugged into a computer system via a USB port and used immediately. Installing operating system (thin clients) on this device allows one to plug this device in any computer without interfering with any of the data on the host computer.


1. Link the beginning and the end of the sentence.


1. The data is stored in memory

a) to represent a character.

2. To decrease access time

b) the CPU can retrieve the desired data and instructions faster.

3. Usually eight bits are used

c) that are sensitive to changes in electric current.

4. RAM chips consist of millions of switches

d) memory is located close to the CPU.

5. Because there is less data in cache memory then in main memory,

e) by representing data as a combination of “on” and “off” circuit states.

2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.


1) circuit card; 2) constant; 3) hold; 4) specified;

5) fast; 6) space; 7) employed; 8) transient




3. Complete these sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.


a) provides; b) deletes; c) required; d ) drive; e) rate; f) capacity; g) operates

1. Storage … is measured in bytes. 2. Optical storage … a convenient way to transfer data from one computer to another.

3. Access … of the memory is the time required to get access to the memory. 4. In imbedded computers, all of the … software may be stored in ROM. 5. Cache memory… somewhat like a notebook used to record phone numbers.

6. A cache controller … the data when it is not currently being used.

7. Thin client operating system installed on the USB flash … allows to use it on any computer.
4. Find the terms to the given definitions.


1

a tiny wafer of semiconductor material, such as silicon, processed to form a type of integrated circuit or component such as a transistor

2

the number of words or characters that can be stored in a particular storage device

3

an electronic circuit in which certain components and the connections between them are formed by etching a metallic coating

4

a group of electrical conductors at a low voltage, used for carrying data in binary form between the various parts of a computer or its peripherals

5

a small area of memory in a computer that can be accessed very quickly

6

representing data as a series of numerical values


5. Answer the questions.
1. How are storage devices classified? 2. What kind of storage constitutes the memory part of the computer? 3. Where is the BIOS program held? 4. What is the function of the cache controller?

Text D: Input and Output Devices
Data are entered into the computer and the processed data made available via input/output devices. I/O devices are the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. Placing data into the computer system requires converting it from human-readable to machine-readable data. Data is thus placed in a computer system in a two-stage process: data entry converts human-readable data into machine-readable form; data input then transfers it to the computer.

Devices that provide input to or output of the computer are called peripherals. The most common peripheral devices used for entry and input of data such as characters, text, and basic commands include a keyboard and a computer mouse and output devices such as a display and printer. Scanners are input devices that convert images and text into binary digits. Terminals perform data entry and data input at the same time. They transfer the data to the processing section of the computer system. Point-of-sale (POS) devices are terminals with scanners that read and enter codes into computer systems. Voice-recognition devices can recognize human speech. Source data automation involves automating data entry and input so that data is captured close to its source and in a form that can be input correctly to the computer. Automated teller machines (ATMs) are terminals with keyboards used for transactions. Touch-sensitive screens can function both as input and output devices.

Output devices provide information in different forms, from hard copy to sound in digital format. Display monitors are standard output devices; monitor quality is determined by size, color, and resolution. Display monitors can be in the form of CRT, LCD, plasma and LED monitors. Other output devices include printers, plotters, speakers, etc. Printers are popular hard-copy output devices whose quality is measured by speed and resolution. All auxiliary (secondary) storage devices are used as input/output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O. In fact, I/O devices are often complex computers, with their own CPU and memory.
1. Agree or disagree with the following statement.
1. Data is entered into the computer and the processed data is made available via input/output devices. 2. A keyboard is a device used for entry and input images. 3. Scanners convert images and text into sound in digital format. 4. The CPU is a peripheral device. 5. To make data available to humans the computer converts it into machine-readable form.


  1. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text.




1) inside; 2) unique; 3) exclude; 4) wrong; 5) similar; 6) peculiar; 7) release




  1. Complete the sentences using active vocabulary.

1. Using the ALU, a microprocessor can … mathematical operations. 2. Touch-sensitive screens are … to exchange information between a computer and a human being. 3. A …computer provides processing data in numerical form. 4. The computer can … data without human intervention. 5. Printers are one of the most popular output devices … for personal computers. 6. Printers differ in … speed, duty cycle, operating costs and memory.


4. Read the sentences translating the Russian fragments into English.
1. (Разрешение принтера) is measured by the number of dots printed per linear inch. 2. The computer’s main circuit board holds all essential chips and (обеспечивает) connecting circuitry between them. 3. A microprocessor is a very complex (интегральная схема). 4. Data (скорость передачи данных) is the amount of data a storage device can transfer per second from the storage medium to the computer. 5. Usually (ёмкость запоминающего устройства) is measured in bytes. 6. (Тактовый генератор) produces a series of electronic pulses at a predetermined rate, called the clock speed. 7. Clock speed is measured in megahertz, where one hertz means one cycle or (импульс) per second.


  1. Answer the questions.

1. How can a human being communicate with a computer? 2. How is data placed into the computer system? 3. What are the most common peripherals 4. What does the computer system hardware contain? 5. What is the word length of the CPU?

SPEAKING PRACTICE
Speak on the following topics.



  1. What makes a computer different from other computing devices? 2. How can the processing speed of the computer be increased? 3. Why does a computer need secondary storage if it has primary storage? 4. Why is it necessary to convert data from human-readable to machine-readable form?



UNIT III: COMPUTER SOFTWARE



  1. Active vocabulary



  2. Application software

    Прикладное ПО

    Copyright

    Авторское право

    Database

    База данных

    Distribution

    Распространение

    High-level language

    Язык высокого уровня

    Install

    Устанавливать/ инсталлировать

    Kernel

    ядро

    Multiuser operating system

    Многопользовательская операционная система

    Object code

    Объектный код/ код программы

    Properties

    Свойства/характеристики

    Service pack

    Пакет обновления

    Setup program

    Программа начальной установки

    Software license

    Лицензия на ПО

    Software suite

    Программный пакет

    Spreadsheet

    Электронная таблица

    System software

    Системное ПО

    Utility software

    Сервисное/ обслуживающее ПО

    Validation code

    Код ратификации/ утверждения

    What-if analysis

    Прогнозирование/ анализ “что если”

    Zipped file

    Архивный файл



  3. Text A: Software basics



  4. Computer software consists of computer programs and data files that work together to provide a computer with the instructions and data necessary for carrying out specific type of task, such as document production, video editing, graphic design, or Web browsing. It is important to remember that computer software consists of many files that contain user-executable programs, support programs and data files. Computer programmers write the programs that become the components of a computer software product. To understand how software is installed and uninstalled, it is important for computer owners to recognize that today’s software typically consists of many files.

  5. To create a computer environment, a programmer must define the properties for each element in the environment, such as where an object appears, its shape, its color, and its behavior. A computer programming language provides the tools a programmer uses to create software. Most programmers today prefer to use high-level languages, such as C++, Java, Visual Basic. A computer microprocessor understands only machine language, however, so a program that is written in a high-level language must be compiled or interpreted before it can be processed. A compiler translates all the instructions in a program as a single batch, and the resulting machine language instructions, called object code, are placed in a new file. An alternative method of translation uses an interpreter to translate instructions one at a time while the program runs.

  6. Software is categorized as application software and system software. The primary purpose of application software is to help people carry out tasks using a computer. In contrast, the primary purpose of system software – your computer’s operating system, device drivers, programming languages, and utilities – is to help the computer carry out its basic operating functions.



  7. 1. Read the questions and circle the correct answer.



  8. 1. What language does a computer’s microprocessor understand?

  9. a) high-level language; b) low-level language; c) machine language

  10. 2. Which of the following converts one computer instruction at a time into machine language while the program is running?

  11. a) compiler; b) interpreter; c) translator; d) none of the above

  12. 3. What files does computer software typically consist of?

  13. a) user-executable program; b) support program; c) data file; d) all of the above

  14. 4. What must a programmer define to create a software environment?

  15. a) elements; b) properties; c) features; d) details

  16. 5. What provides the tools a programmer uses to create software?

  17. a) source code; b) object code; c) programming language; d) all of the above



  18. 2. Match the words with their synonyms.



  19. 1) to carry out; 2) to create; 3) a purpose; 4) to install; 5) data; 6) to consist of;

    7) to define; 8) a feature



    a) information; b) to contain; c) to execute; d) to set up; e) to design; f) aim;

    g) to specify; h) a property





  20. 3. Read the sentences choosing the correct word in bold.



  21. 1. The instructions that tell a computer how to carry out a task are referred to as a computer program/software.

  22. 2. The main executable file provides the primary set of instructions/ utilities for the computer to execute and calls various support programs and data files as needed.

  23. 3. Software includes menus, buttons, and other controls that are defined by a programmer/ user.

  24. 4. A simple instruction to add two numbers becomes a long series of 0s and 1s in machine/ high-level language.

  25. 5. The main executable file loads into RAM/ ROM when the program runs.



  26. 4. Give the Russian equivalents.




  1. 1) Web browsing; 2) document production; 3) computer environment;

  2. 4) as a single batch; 5) a utility; 6) a device driver; 7) application software;

  3. 8) system software; 9) to define properties




  1. 5. Find the answers to the questions.



  2. 1. What is software? What files are included in a typical software product?

  3. 2. Who creates computer software?

  4. 3. How does a programmer “write” software?

  5. 4. How does a computer process a program?

  6. 5. What are the differences between system software and application program?



  7. Text B: Operating systems and utilities



  8. A computer’s software is like a chain of command in an army. Application software tells the operating system what to do. The operating system tells the device drivers, the device drivers tell the hardware, and the hardware actually does the work. The operating system interacts with application software, device drivers, and hardware to manage a computer’s resources. In addition, many operating systems also influence the “look and feel” of your software, or what’s known as user interface.

  9. The core part of an operating system is called the kernel. In addition to this core, many operating systems provide helpful tools, called operating system utilities, that you can use to control and customize your computer equipment and work environment. Operating systems are informally categorized and characterized using one or more of the following terms: A single- user operating system expects to deal with one set of input devices – those that can be controlled by one person at a time. A multiuser operating system is designed to deal with input, output, and processing requests from many users. A network operating system provides process and memory management services that allow two or more programs to run simultaneously. A desktop operating system is one that’s designed for a personal computer – either a desktop computer or notebook. Popular desktop operating systems include Windows XP/ 7/ Me and Mac OS. Popular network operating systems include Linux, UNIX, and Solaris. Operating systems for PDAs - Palm OS, Symbian OS - are typically smaller than PC operating systems and can fit in ROM.



  10. 1. Mark the following statements as True or False.

  11. 1. The operating system allocates a specific area of RAM for each program that is open and running.

  12. 2. The operating system’s small bootstrap program is stored in RAM.

  13. 3. Handheld devices, such as PDAs and smartphones typically feature multiuser operating system.

  14. 4. A desktop operating system, such as Windows, is designed for personal computers.

  15. 5. Utility software is a type of application software designed to perform a specialized task, such as system maintenance or security.



  16. 2. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.




  1. 1) esroafwt; 2) yuttiil; 3) edceiv; 4) emgaan; 5) ndgeis; 6) trseequ;

  2. 7) ticnatre; 8) eicnatfer; 9) rmeuuslit



  1. 3. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.



  2. 1. An operating system … computer resources, such as RAM, storage space, peripherals.

  3. a) allocates; b) manages; c) defines

  4. 2. To run more than one program at a time, the operating system must … specific areas of RAM for each program.

  5. a) allocate; b) install; c) store

  6. 3. A user interface is a combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers … with each other.

  7. a) control; b) display; c) communicate

  8. 4. WinZip, WinAce are third-party …that offer a variety of compression options.

  9. a) utility; b) system; c) technology

  10. 5. An operating system communicates with device drivers so that data can travel between the computer and peripheral resources.

  11. a) roughly; b) primary; c) smoothly

  12. 6. The core part of an operating system is called its ….

  13. a) RAM; b) core; c) kernel



  14. 4. Give the English equivalents.




  1. 1) однопользовательская операционная система; 2) устройство ввода;

  2. 3) рабочая среда; 4) программное обеспечение; 5) аппаратные средства;

  3. 6) ядро операционной системы; 7) модифицировать по заказу пользователя;

  4. 8) одновременно; 9) оборудование; 10) сервисная программа.



  1. 5. Find the answers to the questions.



  2. 1. What is an operating system? What does an operating system do?

  3. 2. What are utilities? What are the most popular ones?

  4. 3. Are different operating systems needed for different computing tasks?

  5. 4. What is the best-selling operating system?

  6. 5. Does an operating system affect the user interface? How?



  1. Text C: Application Software



  2. Document production software assists you with composing, editing, designing, printing, and electronically publishing documents. The three most popular types of document production software include word processing, desktop publishing, and Web authoring. Spreadsheet software is similar to a “smart” piece of paper that automatically adds up the columns of numbers you write on it. You can use it to make other calculations, too, based on simple equations that you write or more complex, built-in formulas. Because it is so easy to experiment with different numbers, this type of software is particularly useful for what-if analyses. Database software helps you store, find, organize, update, and report information stored in one or more tables. When two sets of records are related, database software allows you access data from both tables at the same time. Graphics software, including paint, photo editing, drawing, 3-D, and presentation software, is designed to help you create, manipulate, and print images.

  3. Music and video editing software, educational and reference software, and entertainment software are the most popular categories of personal computer software. A software suite is a “bundled” collection of application software sold as a single package. For businesses, vertical market software is designed to automate specialized tasks in a specific market or business. Horizontal market software is generic software that can be used by just about any kind of business. Groupware is a type of horizontal market software designed to help several people collaborate on a single project using LAN or Internet connections.



  4. 1. Link the beginning and the ending of the sentence.



  5. 1. Various kinds of document production software provide tools for

    a) establish relationships between different types of records.

    2. Database software stores data as a series of records and allows you to

    b) from encyclopedias to medical references, from map software to cookbooks and telephone books.

    3. Reference software spans a wide range of applications -

    c) entertainment software.

    4. Computer games are the most popular type of

    d) “word wrap”, a spelling checker.

    5. Most document production software includes such features as

    e) creating and formatting printed and web-based materials.





  6. 2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.



    1. 1) worksheet; 2) to modify; 3) helpful; 4) to refresh; 5) to keep;

    2. 6) to handle; 7) to work with others



  7. 3. Complete the sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.



  8. a) music software; b) deal with; c) spelling checker;

    d) educational software; e) transfers; f) edit





  9. 1. … helps you learn and practice new skills.

  10. 2. Most document production software includes a …

  11. 3. You may not be a composer or musician to have a use for ….

  12. 4. CD ripper software … files from an audio CD to your computer’s hard disk.

  13. 5. Microsoft Word gives you the ability to create, spell-check, … , format a document on the screen before printing it.

  14. 6. Spreadsheets are popular with accountants who … calculations.



  15. 4. Find the terms to the given definitions.



  16. 1. Computer programs that assist the user in composing, editing, designing, and printing documents.

  17. 2. A numeric model of a real situation, presented in the form of a table.

  18. 3. A collection of individual applications sold as one package.

  19. 4. Computer programs designed to meet the needs of a specific market segment or industry.

  20. 5. The process of setting up a model in a spreadsheet and experimenting to see what happens when different values are entered.

  21. 6. Any computer program that can be used by many different kinds of businesses.



  22. 5. Find the answers to the questions.



  23. 1. How can your computer help you with your writing?

  24. 2. How does spreadsheet software work?

  25. 3. What is database software?

  26. 4. Do businesses use specialized software?

  27. 5. What is a software suite?



  28. Text D: Buying and installing software



  29. When you install software, the new software files are placed in the appropriate folders on your computer’s hard disk, and then your computer performs any software or hardware configurations that are necessary to make sure the program is ready to run. The executable files and data files for the software are placed in the folder you specify. Some support programs for the software, however, might be stored in different folders, such as Windows/ System. Windows software typically contains a setup program that guides you through the installation process.

  30. To install application software from a distribution CD, simply place the CD in the drive and wait for the setup program to begin. The installation process is slightly different for application software that you download. Usually all the files needed for the new software are consolidated into one large file, which is compressed to decrease its size and reduce the download time. This large, downloaded file must be reconstituted, or unzipped, into the original collection of files as a step in the installation process. A self-installing executable file automatically unzips the downloaded file and starts the setup program. A self-executing zip file automatically unzips the software’s files, but does not automatically start the set up program.

  31. Free software updates include new versions, patches, and service packs that contain code to fix bugs and security vulnerabilities. Some updates require a validation code.

  32. A copyright is a form of legal protection that grants the author of an original “work” the right to copy, distribute, sell, and modify that work, except under special circumstances described by copyright laws. A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use a computer program. Licenses for commercial, shareware, freeware, open source, and public domain software provide consumers with different sets of rights pertaining to copying and distribution.



  33. 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.



  34. 1. The files for downloaded software are usually zipped into one large compressed file.

  35. 2. System requirements specify the operating system and minimum hardware capacities required for software to work correctly.

  36. 3. Linux is an example of freeware.

  37. 4. Shareware is not copyrighted, making it available for use without restriction.

  38. 5. A software patch is a small collection of program code that replaces part of the software you currently have installed.



  39. 2. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text.




  1. 1) to zip; 2) to stop; 3) commercial software; 4) to collect; 5) to increase;

  2. 6) to fail a program; 7) to buy; 8) to install; 9) to compress



  1. 3. Fill in the correct words from the active vocabulary.



  2. 1. Computer … consists of many files that contain user-executable programs, support programs and data files.

2. A compiler converts … instructions into a new file containing machine language instructions.

  1. 3. In recent years, antivirus software has become a popular category of .

  2. 4. The core part of OS called … provides the most essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access.

  3. 5. … software stores data as a series of records, which are composed of fields that hold data.

  4. 6. To combat piracy, many software publishers require users to type in a … to complete an installation.



  5. 4. Read the sentences translating the Russian fragments into English.



  6. 1. Software publishers regularly (обновляют) their software to add new (свойства), fix bugs, and improve its security.

  7. 2. (Пакет обновления) is a set of patches that исправляет problems and security vulnerabilities.

  8. 3. (Общедоступное ПО) may be freely copied, distributed, even sold but you are not allowed to apply for a (авторское право) on it.

  9. 4. (Условно-бесплатное ПО) includes a license that (позволяет) you to use software for a trial period but if you choose to use it, you must pay a registration fee.

  10. 5. (Бесплатное ПО) permits you to use it, copy it, give it away but does not allow you to sell it or (вносить изменения) it.

  11. 6. (Открытое ПО) is available for programmers who want to (вносить поправки) and improve it.



  12. 5. Answer the questions.

1. How do you install software from distribution media?



  1. 2. Is the installation process different for downloaded software?

  2. 3. What is a software update?

  3. 4. What is a software license? Do you buy the software or licensing it?

  4. 5. Can you rent the software? Can you sell the software?



  5. SPEAKING PRACTICE




  1. Speak on the topics.

  2. 1. Explain the difference between a compiler and an interpreter. Describe the differences between system software and application software.

  3. 2. Describe the way an operating system manages each computer resource. Identify operating systems for personal computers, PDAs and servers.

  4. 3. List the key features and uses for document production software, spreadsheet and database software.

  5. 4. Explain how to install software, whether it’s supplied on CDs or as a Web download. Describe the rights granted by copyright law.
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