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Методическое пособие по развитию навыков чтения и говорения на английском языке для студентов

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Text B: System Analysis
System analysis involves a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of a new system. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis. Using the following steps it becomes easy to draw the exact boundary of the new system under consideration: a) keeping in view the problems and new requirements, b) workout the pros and cons including new areas of the system.

All procedures, requirements must be analysed and documented in the form of detailed data diagrams (DFDs), data dictionary, logical data structures and miniature specifications. System Analysis also includes sub-dividing of complex processes involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes.

The main points to be discussed in system analysis are:

  • Specification of what the new system is to accomplish based on the user requirements.

  • Functional hierarchy showing the functions to be performed by the new system and their relationships with each other.

  • Function networks which are similar to function hierarchy but they highlight those functions which are common to more than one procedure.

  • List of attributes of the entries — these are the data items which need to be held about each entry (record).

1. Mark the following statements as true or false.

  1. System analysis involves an in-depth study of a new system, leading to specifications of the current system.

  2. Questionnaire, interviews and on-site observation are the tools used for system analysis.

  3. The project team usually document the current system using procedures and interviewing people.

  4. The exact boundary of the new system can be drawn keeping in view the problems and new requirements, workout the pros and cons of the system.

  5. The main issues to be considered in system analysis are: a) analysing the purpose of the information system, b) function networks which are different from function hierarchy.

  1. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.

1) cinafecisopit; 2) derpucore; 3) cehirhyar; 4) trequemirens; 5) abilavela;

6) ateuqinirsone; 7) fidicitanotine
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
1) The goal of the analysis phase is to … a list of requirements for a new or revised information system.

a) produce; b) include; c) investigate

2) A new information system is designed to … a system or process that is already in place.

a) examine; b) verify; c) replace

3) A new or updated information system should … the requirements the project team defines.

a) answer; b) meet; c) satisfy

4) The project team can use a variety of … to diagram the current system and specify what it does.

a) tools; b) media; c) instruments

5) A System Requirement Report describes the … for a new information system.

a) ideas; b) innovations; c) objectives

6) System requirements are the criteria for successfully … problems identified in an information system.

a) solving; b) deciding; c) deleting

4.Give the English equivalents.

1) детальное (подробное) исследование; 2) доводы за и против;

3) анкета (вопросник); 4) технические требования; 5) распознавание (идентификация); 6) подчеркивать (выделять, выдвигать на первый план);

7) существующая система

5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. What is System Analysis?

2. What steps are used to draw the exact border of the new system under consideration?

3. How must all procedures and requirements be analysed and documented?

4. What else does System Analysis include?

5. What are the main points to be discussed in system analysis?
Text C: Qualities of Information
Data and information are not synonymous. Information is processed data. Data may be processed by performing arithmetic operations on them. Data may also be processed by reorganizing them by applying appropriate rules such as sorting, merging, selection, matching, filtering, etc. Information requirements for managing organizations may be classified as strategic, tactical and operational.

Now we'll discuss the qualities of the information to be provided to managers.

  • It must be accurate. Incorrect information is worse than no information.

  • It should be complete. It should include all data and not exclude some.

  • It should also be trustworthy. The processing should not hide some vital information which may point out the inefficiency of some individuals.

  • The information should be timely. It should be given to the manager when he needs it. Delayed information may sometimes be of no value.

  • It should also be up to date. It should include all data available at the time of processing.

  • It should be tailored to the needs of the user and be relevant to him. Irrelevant information would waste a lot of manager's time.

  • It is essential to give brief summarized information to ensure quick action.

  • Information should be presented when a user needs it in such a way that he may immediately perceive its significance. It is essential to present the information in an attractive format which a user can immediately understand.

1. Link the beginnings and the ends of the sentence.

1. Information is a collection of facts organized in such a way that

2. The value of information is directly linked to

3. The reliability of the information depends on

4. Information should be easily accessible by authorized users

5. If information is not accurate or complete,

a) the source of the information.

b) to be obtained in the right format and at the right time to meet their needs.

c) they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves.

d) poor decisions can be made, costing the organization thousands, or even millions of dollars.

e) how it helps decision makers achieve their organization’s goals.

2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.

  1. executing; 2) using; 3) exact (precise); 4) entire (full); 5) reliable;

6) meaning; 7) modern

3. Complete these sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.

a) make; b) be; c) process; d) decision; e) set up; f) distinguish

1. Several characteristics … useful information from data.

2. The purpose of information is to help people … well-informed decisions.

3. Information must be relevant, timely, accurate, concise and complete in order to … useful.

4. Rules and relationships can be … to organize data into useful, valuable information.

5. Turning data into information is a … , or a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome.

6. If information is not pertinent to the situation, not delivered to … makers in a timely fashion, or too complex to understand, it may be of little value to the organization.

4. Find the terms to the given definitions.
1) The symbols that a computer uses to represent facts and ideas.

2) The words, numbers, and graphics used as the basis for human actions and decisions.

3) Tasks performed by the project team whose goal is to produce a list of requirements for a new or revised information system.

4) A computer system that collects, stores, and processes information, usually within the context of an organization.

5) A computer professional responsible for analyzing requirements, designing information systems, and supervising the implementation of new information systems.
5. Answer the questions.
1) What is the difference between data and information?

2) Do you agree that data becomes information when it is presented in format that people can understand and use?

3) How may data be processed?

4) What makes information useful?

5) Do computer systems remain vulnerable to the entry by humans of invalid data?
Text D: System Analyst
Job description. A system analyst designs new IT solutions to improve business efficiency and productivity. Working closely with the client, analysts examine existing business models and flows of data, discuss their findings with the client, and design an appropriate improved IT solution. They produce outline designs and costings of new IT systems, specifying the operations the system will perform, and the way data will be viewed by the user, present their design to the client and, once it is approved, work closely with the client team to implement the solution.

Typical work activities. Work activities depend on specific type of IT system and the size and nature of the organization, but typically involve:

  • liaising extensively with clients, presenting proposals to them;

  • analyzing clients' existing systems;

  • translating client requirements into highly specified project briefs;

  • identifying options for potential solutions and assessing them;

  • drawing up specific proposals for modified or replacement systems;

  • producing project feasibility reports;

  • working closely with developers and a variety of end users;

  • ensuring that budgets are adhered to and deadlines met;

  • drawing up a testing schedule for the complete system;

  • overseeing the implementation of a new system;

  • planning and working flexibly to a deadline;

  • writing user manuals and providing training to users of a new system.

  1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) A system analyst investigates the requirements of a business or organization, its employees, and its customers in order to plan and implement new or improved computer services.

2) The job of a system analyst doesn’t require the ability to identify problems and research technical solutions.

3) Good communication skills are essential for interacting with managers and other employees.

4) Depending on the organization and its size, he or she might also be called a systems consultant, a systems engineer, an information analyst, or a business analyst.

5) A system analyst doesn’t have to determine which people and what kind of software, hardware, and monetary resources are necessary or available to solve the problem.

2. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text.

D 1) destroy; 2) simple; 3) solution; 4) at a distance; 5) unsuitable; 6) deleting; 7) sometimes

3. Fill in the correct words from the active vocabulary.
1) … is the study of an activity, a procedure, even an entire business, to determine what kind of computer system would make it more efficient.

2) … gathers and analyzes the data necessary to develop the new application.

3) “A project team” is a group of people who are assigned to analyze and … an information system.

4) An information system progresses through several … as it is developed, used, and finally retired.

5) The justification for a new information system usually emerges from a serious problem with the … system, a threat to the organization’s success, or an opportunity to improve an organization’s products or services through technology.

6) Computerized information system can become obsolete when the hardware is out of date, or when the software no longer meets the … of the business mission.

4. Read the sentences translating the Russian fragments into English.
1) Computers often provide ways to make businesses run more efficiently, and they can supply (своевременную) information that helps improve customer service.

2) The members of the project team can use a variety of techniques, such as interviews and data analysis, (чтобы распознать) problems and opportunities.

3) The system development life cycle (SDLC) is the (основа) for creating computer systems.

4) The systems analyst’s task is to (беседовать с) the people who will be using the system to determine their needs, problems, and expectations.

5) Data are a collection of facts – unorganized but able to be organized into (полезную информацию).

6) (План развития проекта) typically must be approved by the management before a project proceeds beyond the planning phase.

5. Answer the questions.
1) What data does a system analyst typically gather and analyze?

2) Does a system analyst analyze the problem to be solved, the data to be input, the expected output, and other system considerations? Why?

3) Why does a system analyst work closely with developers, and users, liaise extensively with clients?

4) Do you agree that a computer professional is any person whose primary occupation involves the design, configuration, analysis, development, modification, testing, or security of computer hardware or software? Why?

5) Do computer professionals work outside of Information Systems departments?

Speak on the following topics.

  1. What is a system development life cycle?

  2. How does the project team discover what happens in the current system?

  3. What qualities should information have in order to be useful?

  4. Describe typical work activities of a system analyst.


Active vocabulary

design (n,v) – проектирование; создавать

solution (n) - решение

to satisfy the requirements - удовлетворять требованиям

distributed processing - распределённая обработка данных

to define – определять, описывать

to evaluate – оценивать, анализировать

“from scratch” - “с нуля”, заново

turnkey system - готовая к эксплуатации система

customization (n) - настройка по техническим условиям заказчика

application development tools - средства разработки приложений

to implement - внедрять

compatibility (n) - совместимость

patch (n) - вставка в программу (корректировка)

shell (n) - оболочка операционной системы

maintenance (n) – сопровождение, текущее обслуживание

application specifications – технические требования к системе

backup (n,v) - резервные средства, резервировать

conversion software – программа преобразования данных

performance (n) - производительность системы

Text A: System design. Hardware solutions
Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. The activities that typically take place during the design phase for an information system are: identify potential solutions, evaluate and select the best, select hardware and software, develop application specifications and obtain approval to implement the new system.

There might be more than one way to solve the problems and meet the requirements. When evaluating hardware solutions for a new information system, the project team considers the overall architecture of the system based on level of automation, processing methodology, and network technology.

Some information systems provide a higher level of automation than others. The project team should consider the pros and cons of different levels of automation and computerization.

An information system can be designed for centralized processing, in which data is processed on a centrally located computer (usually a mainframe) or distributed processing, in which processing tasks are distributed to servers and workstations. Distributed processing is very popular because it provides high level of processing at a low cost but presents more security problems than a single, centralized computer. The project team must consider this factor too.

Every information system requires a network, so the project team must examine network alternatives, such LANs, extranets, intranets, and the Internet.
1. Read the questions and circle the correct answer.
1. What must the project team figure out in the design phase?
a) what the new system must do; b) how it will fulfill the requirements
2.What hardware options for information systems are available?
a) mainframes, servers; b) personal computers; c) all of the above
3.Where is data processed in centralized processing?
a) on servers; b) workstations; c) on a centrally located computer
4. Why is distributed processing so popular?
a) it is cheap; b) presents higher security; c) requires powerful computer
5. Who is an information system designed to serve to?
a) a single user; b) an entire organization; c) all of the above
2. Match the words with their synonyms.

1) to figure out; 2) to evaluate; 3) to fulfill; 4) to specify; 5) to distribute

a) to identify; b) to understand; c) to deliver; d) to perform; e) to assess

3. Read the text choosing the correct word in bold type.
Automation alternatives can affect/create many aspects of an information system. For instance, point-of-sale system with low level of automation employs/requires the checkout clerk to enter credit cards numbers. And a credit card number can be stored/ hold using only a few bytes. At a higher level of automation, a magnetic strip reader speeds up/ automates the process of entering a credit card number. At a further level of automation a pressure-sensitive digitizing pad and stylus are used to collect/to read customer signatures. The entire transaction record becomes automatic/electronic and storing a digitized signature might require a special type of database software.
4. Give the Russian equivalents.

1) application specifications; 2) pros and cons; 3) digitized signature; 4) to obtain;
5) approval; 6) point-of-sale system; 7) strip reader; 8) pressure-sensitive pad

5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. What is system design?
2. What affects hardware solutions for a new information system?
3. How does a level of automation differ?
4. What processing methodologies are used?
5. Why does every information system require a network?
Text B: Software alternatives
During the design phase, the project team might consider different software alternatives, such as whether to construct the system “from scratch” in a programming language, use an application development tool, purchase commercial software, or select a turnkey system.

Creating an information system “from scratch” requires development time and expertise. It is also usually costly but offers the most flexibility for meeting the system requirements. The team also selects the programming language to use.

An application development tool contains building blocks that can be assembled into a software product. The application development tools include expert system shells and database management systems. An application development tool help the programmers quickly and easily develop the modules for an information system, but it might limit the ways to implement some system features.

Commercial software for an information system is usually a series of preprogrammed software modules. Although it requires minimal development time, software features might not exactly match business needs. Commercial software is available for standard business functions, such as human resource management, accounting, for many market businesses and organizations.

A turnkey system consists of hardware and commercial software designed to offer a complete information system solution. It requires minimal effort to select and set up, but must be extensively evaluated to determine whether it can satisfy system requirements.
1. Mark the following statements as True or False.
1. Creating an information system “from scratch” using a programming language can take many months or years.
2. Application development tools might offer the same level of flexibility as a programming language.
3. Commercial software might require extensive customization.
4. Commercial software can be modified to meet every system requirements.
5. A turnkey system is essentially an “information system in a box”.
2. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.

1) tolo; 2) sepurach; 3) yteflixibli; 4) chtascr; 5) rutneyk; 6) perextise; 7) fearetu

3. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
1. An information system “from scratch” can be exactly … to system
a) tailored; b) downloaded; c) bought
2. An application development tool is a type of software construction … containing building blocks that can be assembled into software product.
a) site; b) design; c) kit
3. Commercial software … much of the design work required with programming languages or application development tools.
a) increases; b) eliminates; c) refuses
4. A turnkey system might seem like a quick and easy … and it looks attractive to many project teams.
a) solution; b) purchase; c) project
5. The project team must decide if the benefits of commercial software can … the cost and inconvenience of procedural changes.
a) add to; b) cut down; c) compensate
4. Give the English equivalents.

1) рассматривать различные варианты; 2) приобрести коммерческое ПО;

3) требовать профессиональных знаний; 4) предлагать наибольшую гибкость;

5) оболочки экспертных систем; 6) соответствовать потребностям бизнеса

5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. What software alternatives are available?
2. What are the pros and cons of creating a system “from scratch”?
3. What do application development tools include?
4. Why does commercial software require extensive evaluation?
5. Why does a turnkey system look so attractive to many project teams?

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Методическое пособие по развитию навыков чтения и говорения на английском языке для студентов