Методическое пособие по развитию навыков чтения и говорения на английском языке для студентов
- Навигация по данной странице:
- 1. Link the beginning and the end of the sentence.
- 2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.
- 3. Complete these sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.
- 4. Find the terms to the given definitions.
- 5. Answer the questions.
- Text D: Implementation and maintenance
- 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
- 2. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text.
- 3. Fill in the correct words from the active vocabulary.
- 4. Read the sentences, translating the Russian fragments into English.
- SPEAKING PRACTICE Speak on the following topics.
- UNIT 6: DATABASES Active Vocabulary
- Text A: Data Modeling
- Read the questions and circle the correct answer.
- 2. Match the words with their synonyms.
- Read the sentences choosing the correct word in bold type. 4. Give the Russian equivalents.
- 5. Find the answers to the questions
- Mark the following statements as true or false.
- 2. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.
- Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
- 4. Find the words to the given definitions.
- Find the answers to the questions.
- Text C: Popular Database Management Systems
- 1. Link the beginning and the end of the sentences.
- 4. Give the English equivalents.
Text C: Evaluation and selection. Application specifications
To determine the best solution, the project team devises a list of criteria comparing each potential solution. This list includes general criteria related to costs, benefits, and development time. It also includes technical criteria such as the flexibility of the solution and its adaptability for future modifications. Finally, the list includes functional criteria that indicate how well the solution satisfies the specified requirements.
After the project team selects a solution, the next task is to select the hardware and software. The basis for choosing hardware and software includes general criteria, such as cost and delivery time. Technical criteria for hardware might include processing speed, reliability, upgradability, maintenance cost, and warranty. Technical criteria for software might include reliability, compatibility, and availability of patches to fix program errors.
Next step depends on the type of solution selected. If the project team selects a solution that requires programming, systems analysts will create a set of application specifications that describe the way the information system’s software should interact with users, store data, process data and format reports.
Application specifications are a key element in developing an effective information system. They are similar to the pages of the architectural blueprint that show the detailed plan for electrical wiring or plumbing. Not only do these specifications serve as a blueprint for the new system, but they ensure that the development process proceeds efficiently.
1. Link the beginning and the end of the sentence.
2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.
3. Complete these sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.
1. The project team evaluates the … for each solution.
2. Sometimes more than one … sells the hardware and software.
3. Detailed application specifications can be developed only after … the hardware and software for an information system.
4. It is important to change some … during the development process.
5. In a large project, specifications are … to a programming team, but in a small project, you as the user might develop your own specifications.
6. Then you might give the specifications to a programmer or, if you have the … , you might create the software yourself.
4. Find the terms to the given definitions.
5. Answer the questions.
1. How does the team choose the best solution?
2. How does the project team find the right hardware and software?
3. What happens after the project team selects a solution?
4. What is the importance of application specifications?
5. What happens to the completed specifications?
Text D: Implementation and maintenance
The tasks that take place during the implementation phase are: purchase and install hardware and/or software, create and test applications, finalize documentation, convert to new system. When new hardware and software are purchased and installed, they are tested to ensure they operate correctly.
Different types of testing help identify and fix problems. As each application module is completed, it undergoes unit testing. When all modules are tested, integration testing is performed to ensure that the modules operate together correctly. After unit and integration testing are completed, system testing ensures that all hardware and software components work together correctly.
The information system should be completely documented. System documentation describes a system’s features, hardware, and programming. User documentation describes how to interact with the system.
Implementation of a new system must include training employees. It might be software orientation, hardware operations, data entry and backup procedures.
The data for a new information system must be converted and loaded into the new system. System conversion is the process of deactivating an old information system and activating a new one. A final test called acceptance testing demonstrates that the system works correctly.
The maintenance phase involves day-to day operation of the system, making modifications to improve performance, and correcting problems. It is the longest SDLC phase and lasts until the system is retired.
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. Testing is the only way to make sure a new information system works.
2. The target audience for user documentation is programmers, designers, and analysts who might maintain the system and implement modifications.
3. When converting data from an existing computer system to a new system, a programmer writes conversion software to read old data and convert it.
4. Acceptance testing includes the use of real data to demonstrate that the system operates correctly under normal and peak data loads.
5. During the maintenance phase, an information system is maintained in a static state and doesn’t undergo any changes.
2. Find the words with an opposite meaning in the text.
3. Fill in the correct words from the active vocabulary.
1. In the … phase, the project team must figure out how the new system will fulfill the requirements specified in the System Requirements Report.
2. … processing in a client/server or peer-to-peer environment is very popular because it provides high levels of processing power at a low cost.
3. Software … is the process of modifying a commercial application to an
4. The goal of … is to create very detailed specifications for the completed information system.
5. Software testing can reveal problems that result from … with the existing hardware or an incorrect installation of the software.
6. During the ... phase of the SDLC, the project team puts together the components for the new information system.
4. Read the sentences, translating the Russian fragments into English.
1. In the design phase, the project team (определяет различные решения) and then selects the one that offers the most benefits at the lowest cost.
2. (Настройка по техническим условиям заказчика может включать) modifying the user interface, enabling the mouse, selecting the menus.
3. Application development tools include (оболочки экспертных систем и системы управления базой данных).
4. The final phase of testing, in which users verify that the entire system works as specified, (называется приемочное тестирование).
5. (Без программы по преобразованию данных), users would be forced to manually reenter data from the old system into the new system.
6. (На этапе текущего обслуживания системы), security is a top priority, but operating system upgrades and software revisions also take place.
5. Answer the questions.
1. What happens during the implementation phase?
2. How can the team ensure that a new information system works?
3. What kinds of documentation does the project team create?
4. What happens to data from the old system?
5. What are the major maintenance activities for an information system?
Speak on the following topics.
1. What happens in the design phase?
2. The pros and cons of different software alternatives.
3. Implementation phase: development and testing.
4. How long does the maintenance phase last?
UNIT 6: DATABASES
Text A: Data Modeling
Key considerations in organizing data in a database include determining what data is to be collected in the database, who will have access to it, and how they might wish to use the data. Based on these determinations, a database can then be created. Building a database requires two different types of designs: a logical design and a physical design.
The logical design of a database shows an abstract model of how the data should be structured and arranged to meet an organization’s information needs. The logical design of a database involves an orderly fashion. Because databases provide both input and output for information systems throughout a business, users from all functional areas should assist in creating the logical design to ensure that their needs are identified and addressed.
Physical database design starts from the logical database design and fine-tunes it for performance and cost considerations (e.g. improved response time, reduced storage space, lower operating cost0. The person identified to fine-tune the physical design must have an in-depth knowledge of the DBMS to implement the database. For example, the logical database design may need to be altered so that certain data entities are combined, summary totals are carried in the data records rather than calculated from elemental data, and some data attributes are repeated in more than one data entity. These are examples of planned data redundancy. It is done to improve the system performance so that the user reports or queries can be created more quickly.
a) two different types of designs; b) three different types of designs; c) only one type of design;
2. Who must have an in-depth knowledge of the DBMS to implement the database?
a) the person identified to fine-tune the logical design; b) the person identified to fine-tune the physical design; c) the person responsible to implement the logical design;
3. What does the logical design of a database involve?
a) an orderly fashion; b) modern fashion; c) structure fashion
4. Which users should assist in creating the logical design to ensure that their needs are identified and addressed?
a) programmers from all functional areas; b) users from all structural areas; c) users from all functional areas
5. What can improve the system performance?
a) scalability; b) planned data redundancy; c) creation of domain
2. Match the words with their synonyms.
4. Give the Russian equivalents.
5. Find the answers to the questions:
1. What should one determine in organizing data in a database?
2. What does physical database design start from?
3. What does the logical design of a database show?
4. Why may the logical database design need to be altered?
5. What must the person identified to fine-tune the physical design have?
Relational models have become the most popular database models, and use of these models will increase in the future. The relational model describes data using a standard tabular format. In a database structured according to the relational model, all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, which are the logical equivalent of files. The tables in relational databases organize data in rows and columns, simplifying data access and manipulation. It is normally easier for managers to understand the relational model than the hierarchical and network models.
In the relational model, each row of table represents a data entity, with the columns of the table representing attributes. Each attribute can take on only certain values. The allowable values for these attributes are called the domain. The domain for a particular attribute indicates what values can be placed in each of the columns of the relational table.
1. The structure of the relationships in most databases follows only one model.
2. The relational model describes data using a standard tabular format.
3. Each attribute can take different values.
4. The tables in relational databases organize data in rows and columns.
5. Network models have become the most popular database models.
2. Put the letters in the following words into the correct order.
1. Hierarсhical and network models are still being used today, but … are the most popular.
a) relational models; b) network models; c) hierarсhical models
2. The allowable values for these attributes are called the … .
a) structure; b) table; c) domain
3. The tables in relational databases organize data … .
a) in columns; b)in rows and columns; c) in lines
4. These links dictate the way users can … data with application programs.
a) retrieve; b) handle; c) access
5. In the relational model, each row of table represents … , with the columns of the table representing attributes.
a) a data entity; b) database; c) warehouse
6. The relational model … data using a standard tabular format.
a) determines; b) describes; c) performs
2. the allowable values for data attributes;
3. an expansion of the hierarchical database model with an owner-member relationship in which a member may have many owners;
4. a data model in which data is organized in a top-down, or inverted tree, structure;
5. a diagram of data entities and their relationships
1. What are the most popular database models?
2. What do the tables in relational databases do?
3. Why does each model have unique advantages and disadvantages?
4. What do rows and columns represent in a relational model?
5. Can each attribute take on only certain values or different values?
Text C: Popular Database Management Systems
The latest generation of database management systems makes it possible for end users to build their own database applications. End users are using these tools to address everyday problems like how to manage a mounting pile of information on employees, customers, inventory, or sales and fun stuff like wine lists, CD collections, and video libraries. These database management systems are an important personal productivity tool along with word processing, spreadsheet, and graphics software.
A key to making DBMSs more usable for some databases is the incorporation of “wizards” that walk you through how to build customized databases, modify ready-to-run applications, use existing record templates, and quickly locate the data you want. These applications also include powerful new features such as help systems and Web-publishing capabilities. For example, users can create a complete inventory system and then instantly post it to the Web, where it does double duty as an electronic catalog. Some of the most popular DBMSs for end users include Microsoft Access, Lotus Approach, and Inprise’s dBASE.
The complete database management software market encompasses software used by professional programmers and that runs on midrange, mainframe, and supercomputers. The entire market generates $ 10 billion per year in revenue, with Oracle, IBM, Microsoft, Informix, and Sybase the leaders. Although Microsoft rules in desktop PC software, its share of database software on bigger computers is small.
2. Find the words with a similar meaning in the text.
3. Complete these sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.
1. The latest generation of database management systems … it possible for end users to build their own database applications.
2. End users are using these tools to address everyday … .
3. The complete database management software market … software used by professional programmers.
4. These applications also … powerful new features such as help systems and Web-publishing capabilities.
5. A key to making DBMSs more usable for some databases is the … of “wizards”.
6. “Wizards” help you to build customized databases, … ready-to-run applications, use existing record templates, and quickly locate the data you want.
4. Give the English equivalents.