Методическое пособие по развитию навыков чтения и говорения на английском языке для студентов
Text D: Selecting s Database Management System
Selecting the best database management system begins by analyzing database needs and characteristics. The information needs of the organization affect what type of data is collected and what type of database management system is used. Important characteristics of databases include the size of the database, number of concurrent users, performance, the ability of the DBMS to integrate with other systems, the features of the DBMS, vendor considerations, and the cost of the database management system.
The database size depends on the number of records or files in the database. The size determines the overall storage requirement for the database. Most database management systems can handle relatively small databases of less than 100 million bytes; fewer can manage terabyte-size databases.
The number of simultaneous users that can access the contents of the database is also an important factor. Clearly, a database that is meant to be used in a large workgroup must be able to support a number of concurrent users; if it cannot, then the efficiency of the members of the workgroup will be lowered. The term scalability is sometimes used to describe how well a database performs as the size of the database or the number of concurrent users is increased. A highly scalable database management system is desirable to provide flexibility. Unfortunately, many companies make a poor DBMS choice in this regard and then later are forced to convert to a new DBMS when the original does not meet expectations.
2. The database size doesn’t depend on the number of records or files in the database.
3. The number of simultaneous users that can access the contents of the database is also an unimportant factor.
4. Most database management systems can handle relatively large databases of more than 100 million bytes.
5. A highly scalable database management system is desirable to provide flexibility.
3. Fill in the correct words from the active vocabulary.
1. The number of simultaneous users that can … the contents of the database is also an important factor.
2. Many companies later are forced to … to a new DBMS when the original does not meet expectations.
1. What do the information needs of the organization affect?
2. Which databases can most database management systems handle?
3. What is desirable to provide flexibility?
4. What does the size of database determine?
5. Can you enumerate the most important characteristics of databases?
Speak on the following topics.
1. Databases for multiusers systems.
2. Main principles of relational database.
3. Levels of database access.
4. Databases security.
UNIT 7: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Text A: Artificial Intelligence
Of all the technologies the most far-reaching in its potential impact is artificial intelligence (AI). Computer scientists believe that the one area of human intelligence which is at the core of human intelligence is what is often called common sense.
The term artificial intelligence is used to describe computers with the ability to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain. The objective of building AI systems is to replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems.
Intelligent behavior has several characteristics, including the abilities to learn from experience and apply this knowledge to new experiences; handle complex situations and solve problems for which pieces of information may be missing; think in a logical and rational manner and give a quick and correct response; and understand visual images and processing symbols.
Artificial intelligence is a broad field that includes several key components, such as expert systems, robotics, vision systems, learning systems, and neural networks. An expert system consists of the hardware and software to produce systems that act or behave like a human expert in a field or area (e.g., credit analysis). Robotics involves developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision. Vision systems permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate images and pictures. Learning systems allow the computer to change how It functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives (e.g. a computerized chess game). A neural network is a computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain.
1. Read the questions and circle the correct answer.
1. The core of human intelligence is … .
a) a combination of variants; b) network technology; c) common sense;
d) PC operators
2. The term artificial intelligence is used to describe computers with the ability … .
a) to do thousands of operations; b) to mimic the functions of human brain;
c) to process graphic information; d) to model 3D environment
3. Artificial intelligence is a … … including several key components.
a) internet portal; b) automatized device; c) broad field; d) communication channel
4. Tasks for robots require a high degree of … .
a) precision; b) randomization; c) processing materials; d) network connection
5. A computer system that simulates the functioning of a human brain is called … .
a) proton system; b) Web system; c) neural network; d) graphic simulating system
2. Match the words with their synonyms.
3. Read the sentences choosing the correct word in bold type.
1. AI is the most far-reaching of all the game applications/technologies in its potential impact.
2. Intelligent behavior includes the abilities to learn from experience and apply this knowledge to new experiences/protection systems.
3. Artificial intelligence is a broad field that includes several key network protocols/components.
4. Learning systems use a combination/advantage of software and hardware.
5. An expert/vision system acts or behaves like a human expert in a field or area.
6. To replicate/replace human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems is the goal of building AI systems.
7. Vision systems permit to store and limit/manipulate images.
4. Give the Russian equivalents.
5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. What is the core of human intelligence?
2. Is the objective of creating AI systems to replace human decision making completely?
3. Which characteristics are typical for intelligent behavior?
4. An expert system behaves like a human expert in a field, does not it?
5. How do vision systems function?
An expert system is a computer program that uses a database of knowledge to draw conclusions. In other words, an expert system reasons.
Expert systems can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions, display intelligent behavior, manipulate symbolic information and draw conclusions from complex relationships, and deal with uncertainty. They are not yet widely used; some are difficult to use, are limited to relatively narrow problems, cannot readily deal with mixed knowledge, present the possibility for error, cannot refine their own knowledge base, are difficult to maintain, and may have high development costs. Their use also raises legal and ethical concerns.
An expert system consists of a collection of integrated and related components, including a knowledge base, an inference engine, an explanation facility, a knowledge acquisition facility, and a user interface. The knowledge base contains all the relevant data, rules, and relationships used in the expert system. The rules are often composed of if-then statements, which are used for drawing conclusions. Fuzzy logic allows expert systems to incorporate facts and relationships into expert system knowledge bases that may be imprecise or unknown.
The explanation facility of an expert system allows the user to understand what rules were used in arriving at a decision. The knowledge acquisition facility helps the user add or update knowledge in the knowledge base. The user interface makes it easier to develop and use the expert system
2. Expert systems can draw conclusions from complex relationships.
3. They can refine their own knowledge base.
4. The user cannot understand what rules were used in arriving at a decision.
5. The knowledge base contains all the relevant data, rules and relationships used in the expert system.
3. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
1. An expert system consists of integrated and related … .
a) numbers; b) units; c) components; d) statements
2. They can … symbolic information and draw conclusions from complex relationships.
a) change; b) manipulate; c) perform; d) present
3. The user … makes it easier to develop and use the expert system.
a) decision; b) network; c) knowledge; d) interface
4. Expert systems can … intelligent behavior.
a) display; b) neglect; c) leave; d) require
5. The knowledge acquisition facility helps … add or update knowledge in the knowledge base.
a) the developer; b) the client; c) the expert; d) the user
6. Expert systems may have high … costs.
a) development; b) energy; c) system; d) network
5. Find the answers to the questions.
1. How can you define an expert system?
2. Do expert systems deal with uncertainty?
3. What does the knowledge base contain?
4. The rules are often composed of if-then statements, aren’t they?
5. Can expert systems refine their own knowledge base?
In addition, neural network software can be used to simulate a neural network using standard computers. Neural networks can process many pieces of data at once and learn to recognize patterns. The systems then program themselves to solve related problems on their own. Some of the specific features on neural networks include the following: the ability to retrieve information, fast modification of stored data, the ability to discover relationships and trends in large databases, the ability to solve complex problems for which all the information is not present.
Neural networks excel at pattern recognition. For example, neural network computers can be used to read bank check codes despite poor-quality printing. Neural networks are also used to identify threats in the sky and to detect submarines underwater by reading the pattern of radar waves. The power companies use neural networks to find electricity usage patterns so that they can analyze rate structures and forecast demand. Neural nets work particularly well when it comes to analyzing detailed trends – tasks that require precise analysis. This technology can also be employed to track individual users and their on-line preferences so that users at e-commerce sites don't have to input the same information each time they log-on – their data will be factored in each time they access a Web site.
2. Find the words with the similar meaning in the text.
3. Complete the sentences using a noun or a verb from the box.
1. Neural network is a branch of AI that allows computers to recognize … .
2. Neural net can … the functioning of a human brain.
3. In a neural net computer processing units … in multiple ways.
4. Neural nets are not programmed – they … .
5. The net learns by … .
6. Neural nets can … information.
5. Answer the questions.
1. What is the neural networking?
2. What is the main function of neural networks?
3. Do you know what structure a neural network resembles?
4. Can you speak about the specific features of neural networking?
5. What spheres of our life are neural networks used?
In general, robotic systems can do precise tasks accurately and consistently. Contemporary robotics combines high-precision machine capabilities with sophisticated controlling software and sensors. The controlling software in robots is what is most important in terms of AI. The brain in a advanced industrial robot today works at about ten million instructions per second. To achieve human intelligence, the robot brain must achieve 100 trillion operations per second. These sensors enable the robot to change its motion based on outside stimuli. The sensors can detect light, sound, touch and heat.
Robots have many applications in industry. Manufactures use robots to assemble and paint products. The robots do repetitive tasks without getting bored and careless. Robots are expensive, they work 24 hours per day, do not go on strike, do not show up to work with a hangover and do not require health insurance and pensions. The robots have enabled firms to manufacture quality products and reduce labor costs while shortening delivery time to customers. For this reasons, companies likes robots very much. As robots grow more capable, the opportunity for unskilled and semiskilled employment are sure to decline.
Although robots are essential components of today's automated manufacturing systems, future robots will find applications outside the factory in banks, restaurants, homes and hazardous working environments such as nuclear stations. A robot must not only execute tasks programmed by the user but also be able to interact with its environment through its sensors and actuators, sense and avoid unforeseen obstacles, and perform its duties much the same way humans.
1. Agree of disagree with the following statements.
1. A robot is a computer that outputs information.
2. Robotics systems don't do precise tasks accurately.
3. Software can detect light, sound and hit.
4. Robots have few applications in industry.
5. Robots are used to assemble and paint cars.
3. Fill in the correct words from the active vocabulary.
1. Many people are working in the field of … .
2. Tasks performed by robots require a high degree of … .
3. Modern robotics combines … machine capabilities with … controlling software.
4. Robots have many … in industry.
5. Robots are used for … cars.
2. Many people are working in the field of (робототехника).
3. A lot of (сложных) programs are written for robots.
4. Scientists and engineers (разрабатывать) robots for industry and homes.
5. Modern robots are capable of (имитировать) simple operations.
6. It is difficult to predict what the robots of the future will (выглядеть).
5. Answer the questions.
1. What is robotics?
2. What operations do robots perform?
3. What capabilities do modern robots combine?
4. What do you know about robots’ applications in industry?
5. Why are robots essential components of automated manufacturing systems?
2. The key spheres of using expert systems.
3. Speak about the similarities between the way neural networks and the human brain work.
4. The advantages of using robots.
UNIT 8: NETWORKS